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I The Firelands Pioneer, I 


Firelands Historical Society, 


Nprwalk, Ohio. 





The Chronicle Publishing Company, IM 

Norwalk, Ohio. \M 

Weslern B<aql. Pi 


January, 1886. Price SO Cts. 

New Series, Volume III. 

The Firelands Pioneer, 


Firelands Historical Society, 


Norwalk, Ohio. 

i 'kin ted by 

The Chronicle Publishing Company, 

Norwalk, Ohio, 



ZE^OIR 1885-6. 
CHAUNCEY WOODRUFF, President, - - - Peru 

A. D. SKELLINGER, Vice President, - - New London 
I. T. REYNOLDS, Vice President, - - Berlin Heights 

L. C. LAYLIN, Recording Secretary, - '' ■ - Norwalk 

H. L. STEWART, Corresponding Secretary, - Norwalk 

C. W. MAN AHAN, Treasurer, .... Norwalk 

F. R. LOOMIS, Biographer, - - - Norwalk 

C. E. NEWMAN, Librarian and Custodian of Relics, Norwalk 

Board of Directors and Trustees, 





\ oSiol 5 


Again we greet the citizens of the Firelands with a new vol- 
ume of our "Firelands Pioneer." 

This is Volume 3 of the New Series; and the Sixteenth Vol- 
ume and twenty-first hook published by the Society. 

Herein will be found a continuation of the records of the So- 
ciety from volume 2 until the present time; which, with the former 
volumes, comprises a con^dete history of the Society and its doings 
from its organization until this date. 

A number of the back volumes arc now on hand and for sale 
by 0. E. Newman, the Librarian of the Society. The back num- 
bers are every year becoming more rare and valuable and those 
who desire them for preservation will do well to procure them at 

This volume will show for itself, and Ave trust will prove an 
interesting and profitable addition to the valuable numbers which 
have preceded it. 

Every citizen in the Firelands should be interested in preserv- 
ing a history of the events transpiring within our borders. The 
only way to do this successfully is to support the Firelands Histori- 
cal Society in its laudable efforts to carefully preserve and frequent- 
ly publish these volumes of history, biography and record of pass- 

Committee on Publication. 


Of the Firelands Historical Society , and its (Board of 
(Directors and Trustees. 

Continued from New Series, Volume II. 



The twenty-eighth annual meeting of the Firelands Historical 
Society was held in AVhittlesey Hall, Norwalk, O., on Wednesday, 
July 16th, 1884. The President, P. N. Schuyler, in the chair. 
Prayer was offered by Rev. J. N. Lewis. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the last annual meeting 
which were approved, also those of the several meetings of the 
Executive Committee. 

The Treasurer, C. E. Newman, presented the following report: 

June 20,1883. To amount in treasury at annual meeting at this date $11 69 

July 19, " To interest on loan to John Backerstock for one year 10 00 

20, " To memberships renewed: E. Bogardus 50 

" " " " " L. 8. Owen 50 

" " " " " Capt. C. Woodruff 50 

" " Cash for three Nos. sold 150 

Aug. 15, " Cash lor two Nos. sold... 100 

April 29. 1884. Cash paid Treasurer on loan ' 300 00 

Total #355 69 


July 27, 1883. Py order No. 5 $27 60 

Feb. 19, 1884. " " " 6 : 6 00 

Juno 20, " Paid for Nos. 2 and 4, Vol.1 50 

July 16, " Balance in treasury 321 59 

Total : $355 69 


On motion of Gen. F. Sawyer, the Treasurer's report was re- 
fered to an Auditing Committee consisting of the following mem- 
bers: Gen. F. Sawyer, G. T. Stewart and S. A. Wildman. 

The Auditing Committee, upon examination, reported the re- 
port of the Treasurer correct, and the report was approved by the 
Society and ordered to be inserted in the minutes of the annual 

The report of the Librarian and Custodian, C. E. Newman, 
was presented and read as follows: 

We have on hand two complete sets, bound in two volumes, 
also four volumes bound containing all the numbers from 1866 to 
1876. Three sets in pamphlet form complete with the exception 
of first two volumes. Of Vol. 2, No. 1, 14 copies; Vol. 2, No. 4, 
83 copies; Vol. 3, 22 copies; Vol. 4, 3 copies; Vol. 5, 25 copies; 
Vol. 6, 12 copies; Vol. 7, 94 copies; Vol. 8,1 copy; Vol. 9,223 
copies; Vol. 10, 99 copies; Vol. 11, 168 copies; Vol. 12,268 copies; 
Vol. 13, 486 copies. 

New Series, Vol. 1, 600 copies; Vol. 2, just published, 600 

The following miscellaneous works and exchanges are on file 
and in the possession of the Librarian: 

"American Antiquarian," received regularly in exchange. 

" Magazine of American History," one copy. 

"Proceedings of Wyoming Historical and Geological So- 
ciety," 1 volume. 

These, with a few reports of local and State Historical Socie- 
ties, comprise the additions during last year. 

Our library of bound books is small, containing about 200 vol- 
umes, many of these are old, some of which were printed 230 
years ago. They are donations from friends of the Society and 
should be kept and carefully preserved. Many of these volumes 
are very valuable and should they be lost can never be replaced. 
That the Society may appreciate the trust they have had committed 
to them, I mention the titles of a few of the volumes we have in 
our care: 

Sixteen bound volumes of the "National Intelligencer," 1838 
to 1853. 

Four bound volumes of the " Norwalk Reporter," 1827 to 1830. 

Four bound volumes of the "Sandusky Clarion," 1822 to 1831. 

One set of "Ohio and Michigan Register and Emigrants 
Guide," 1832. 


One copy early history of Cleveland, O., by Col. Chas. Whit- 

One Bible, with Church of England Prayer Book of 120 years 

One Psalm Book printed in 1*716. 

"Treatise of Civil Liberty," published in London, Eng., in 

On motion, the report was received and ordered to be entered 
in the minutes. 

On motion of L. C. Laylin, the Chair appointed the following 
Committee on Nomination of Officers for the ensuing year: L. C. 
Laylin, G. T. Stewart, Gen. F. Sawyer, F. R. Loomis and C. W, 
Man ah an. 

A recess was then taken until 1:30 p. m. 


President Schuyler called the Society to order at 1 :30 p. m. 

The Committee on Nomination of Officers reported as fol- 

"Your Committee recommend the following as officers for the 
ensuing year: 

President, Capt. Chauncey Woodruff .Peru. 

Vice President, Dr. A. D. Skellinger New London. 

I. T. Reynolds Berlin. 

Recording Secretary, H. L. Stewart Norwalk. 

Corresponding Secretary, L. C. Laylin , " 

Treasurer, C. W. Man ah an " 

Biographer, F. R. Loomis " 

Librarian and Custodian, C. E. Newman " 

Board of Directors and Trustees, P. N. Schuyler Bellevue. 

G.T.Stewart Norwalk. 

C. E. Newman 

F. Sawyer 

" " " John S. Davis Monroeville. 

On motion, the report was accepted and adopted. 

G. T. Stewart presented the following recommendation from 
the Committee on Nomination of Officers: 

''That a committee of one from each township in the Fire- 
lands be appointed who shall act as Corresponding Committee of 
the Society for the locality where he resides:" 


The recommendation was adopted and the following were ap- 
pointed to serve as such committee: 

Martin Kellogg Bronson, Huron County. 

W. W. Stiles Ctarksfield, " 

C. B. Simmons Fairfield, " " 

J. T. Townsend Fitchville, " « 

Alex. Lewis, 1st Greenfield, " " 

J.B.Hill Greenwich, " " 

Bartlett Davis Hartland, " " 

E. O. Merry Lyme, " " 

E. Dickinson ^Jew Haven, " " 

J. M. Rawson ... , New London, " " 

N. G. Sherman Norwalk, " " 

Thos. Brown Norwich, " " 

Chas. Roe Peru," " " 

D. Sweetland Richmond, " " 

J. H. Donaldson Ripley, 

H. M. Roby Ridgefield, " 

Lovell McCrillis Sherman, " " 

R. C. Dean Townsend, 

John G. Sherman . . . '. Wakeman, " " 

J. H. McElhinney Ruggles, Ashland County. 

Isaac Fowler Berlin, Erie County. 

Bowen Case Florence, " " 

Samuel Bemis Groton, " " 

George Haskins Huron, " " 

E. Huntington Kelleys Island, " " 

F. G. Lockwood Milan, " " 

S. A. Pelton : Vermillion, ": 

A. W. Hendry Sandusky, " " 

Oxford, « 


On motion of G. T. Stewart, the thanks of the Society were 
returned to P. N. Schuyler, retiring President, who declines a re- 
election, for his long, active and able services as President of 
the Society, he having served longer in that capacity than any of 
his predecessors. 

The motion was adopted by a unanimous vote. 

C. E. Newman read an interesting letter from the old pioneer 
and friend of the Society, Martin Kellogg, of Bronson. 


P. N. Schuyler offered the following resolution: 

JResolved, That a committee of three be appointed for the pur- 
pose of carrying into effect, by such course as they may deem best, 
the idea of the resolution passed by this Society at Put-in-Bay, 
September 10, 1883, to secure the erection of a National Monu- 
ment at Put-in-Bay in memory of the Battle of Lake Erie and its 

On motion the resolution was adopted, and the Chair appointed 
the following as such committee: 

P. N. Schuyler, G. T. Stewart and F. R. Loomis. 

Gen. F. Sawyer then addressed the Society on the life of our 
pioneers; relating many pleasing reminiscences of olden time, in- 
terspersed with humorous remarks and incidents. 

C. H. Stewart, S. A. Wildman, Rodney Bemis, Isaac Under- 
bill, Myron Breckenridge and Dr. A. D. Skellinger also delivered 
interesting and* appropriate addresses on topics connected with the 
object and mission of the Society. 

On motion, the Society then adjourned. 

L. C. LAYLIN, Recording Secretary. 

Norwalk, 6., July 1G, 1884. 

Meeting of Directors and Trustees. 

AUGUST 8th, 1884. 

A meeting of the Directors and Trustees was held in the law 
office of G. T. Stewart, in Norwalk, O., August 8th, 1884. All the 
members were present and duly sworn in. 

On motion, the sale of the new annual publication was placed 
in the hands of C E. Newman. 

A bill of the Chronicle Publishing Co., for 175.00, was pre- 
sented, approved and ordered paid. 

The official bond of C. W. Manahan was ordered to be drawn 
up in due form by the Secretary. 

Treasurer Newman reported the Permanent Fund of $500 in 
tho hands of the Treasurer, and on motion, he was authorized to 
negotiate a loan on good and approved mortgage security. 

The Board then adjourned. 

H. L. STEWART, Secretary. 

Norwalk, O., August 8, 1 884. 


Meeting of Directors and Trustees. 

SEPTEMBER 20th, 1884. 

The Directors and Trustees met in the law office of G. T. 
Stewart, at Norwalk, O., September 20th. All present but John S. 

On motion, the President was authorized to appoint a Com- 
mittee of Arrangements and take the proper steps to call and pro- 
vide for a quarterly meeting to be held at Peru, October 7th, 1884. 

On motion, the official bond of C. W. Manahan as Treasurer 
was approved. 

C. E. Newman presented his annual report, showing a balance 
of |4.36 advanced by him. 

Reports accepted and Secretary authorized to draw order for 
that amount in favor of Mr. Manahan. 

On motion, the Librarian was authorized to dispose of the last 
three publications of the Society at the regular price, and report 
to the Society at the following rates: If ten copies, @ 40 cts. per 
copy; if 50 copies, @ 35 cts.; if 100 copies, @ 25 cts. 

The Board then adjoured. 

H. L. STEWART, Secretary. 

Norwalk, O., September 20, 1884. 


At Peru, on Wednesday, October 8th, 1884. 

A quarterly meeting of the Firelands Historical Society was 
held in theM. E. Church, Peru, October 8th, 1884. 

The meeting was called to order at 1 1 a. m. by Capt. C. Wood- 
ruff, President. Prayer was offered by Rev. T. F. Hildreth. 

The Recording Secretary, H. L. Stewart, being absent, C. E. 
Newman was elected Secretary pro tern. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting being called for the 
Secretary read them from the published proceedings of the meet- 
ing in the Norwalk Chronicle. 


Miss Effie Danforth was then called upon by the President and 
entertained the audience by the recitation of a poem, entitled 
"New England and the West," by T. B. Read, in a very creditable 
manner, after which the Rev. J. N. Lewis being introduced by the 
President, delivered an able and instructive address entitled, "Our 
Work in History." 

At the close of the address, P. N. Schuyler spoke for a few 
minutes on the duty and importance of sustaining the " Firelands 
Pioneer," urging upon those present their responsibility in this re- 
gard, as on the sale of this publication depends the existence of 
the Society. 

The meeting then adjourned to the Presbyterian Church, at 
which place a most bountiful dinner was served by the citizens of 
Peru and vicinity, for all present. 


At 2 p. m. the meeting again convened at the same place. 
When upon a request of P. N. Schuyler, the following interesting 
facts became known: It was found that there were in the audience 
thirteen pioneers who had settled on the Firelands previous to the 
year 1820, thirteen others previous to 1825, eleven others previous 
to 1830, twenty-seven others previous to 1835, twelve others pre- 
vious to 1840. Making over sixty old pioneers who had been resi- 
dents of the Firelands forty-five years or more. Also seventeen 
individuals over 75 years old; six over 80 years and one over 86. 

The following persons were among those present, to-wit: 

Peru. — Aro Danforth and wife, Robert Danforth, Mrs. Samuel 
Atherton, Charles Roe, Henry Ruggles and wife, Horace Perry, 
Mrs. D. Underbill, Peter Hohler, Mrs. Minges, Jesse Kingsbury 
and wife, Mrs. Alvan •Brigthman, M. M. Hester and wife. 

Bronson. — Deacon G. Lawrence and wife, Wm. G. Mead, Mrs. 
Benjamin Smith, Mrs. Solomon Truxell, Mrs. George States, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Hunewell, Munson Gregory and wife 

Norwalk — N. (t. Sherman and wife, Col. J. A. Jones and w T ife, 
C. E. Newman and wife, J. R. Lewis, Frank Read, Daniel Morse 
and wile, Judge C. P. Wickham and wife, Ansel Baker, S. A. 
Wildman and wife, Dr. S. P. Hildreth, Rev. T. F. Hildreth and 
wife, Edmund L. Saunders and wife, Mrs. Joseph Roe, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Mitchell, I. M. Gillett and wife. 

Faiefield. — Mrs. Giles Baker, Mrs. Samuel Atherton, B. Day 
and wife, .Mrs. Cherry, David Johnson and wife. 


Ridgefield. — J. D. Easton, John S. Davis, Mr. and Mrs. Fitch, 
Hon. E. Bogardus and wife. 

Greenfield. — Hiram Smith, Aaron Kellogg and wife, James 
McLane, Win. H. Armstrong and wife. 

Bellevue. — Burdett Wood, Joseph Wood, E. O. Merry, P. N. 

Berlin Heights. — I. T. Reynolds and wife, Daniel Tenant. 

Huron. — Tower Jackson. 

Norwich. — J. H. Hester and wife. 

Cleveland. — Dr. J. C. Sanders and wife, Charles B. Fay. 

Kenton, O. — Mrs. Elizabeth Chase. 

Nappia, Cal. — Mrs. Dr. Smith. 

Fitchville. — Wm. Johnson. 

Mr. Tower Jackson, of Huron, was the oldest who stood up 
and seemed as erect and vigorous as a man of forty-five. 

The afternoon session was called to order by the President, 
and the exercises were opened by singing, by the choir of the Peru 
churches assisted by visitors from other places, of the old patriotic 
hymn "America," which was joined in heartily by the assembly. 

The President here introduced Prof. J. C. Sanders, of Cleve- 
land, who held the audience spell-bound, while he, for nearly an 
hour, in tender and feeling language portrayed the character, trials 
and noble work of the Pioneer Physician. Scarcely an eye in the 
entire audience that was not moistened with tears, as the manly 
form of Dr. Moses C. Sanders lived before them in tender and lov- 
ing memories of the past, as they were portrayed by the eloquent 
words of the speaker. 

At the close of his address a motion was made and unanimous- 
ly carried, asking the doctor and other speakers for copies of their 
addresses for publication in the Firelands Pioneer. 

A vote of thanks from the entire audience was most heartily 
given to the people of Peru and vicinity, for the bountiful feast of 
good things they had so generously served to the old pioneers and 
those present. 

The closing address of the meeting was a grand peroration by 
the Rev. T. F. Hildreth, of Norwalk. Coming to the Firelands a 
mere lad, having spent nearly his whole life among us, he entered 
heartily into the spirit of the nieeeting, and by his spirited, elo- 
quent and glowing words he carried the audience with him. The 
people regretted to have him close. 

Although the weather was very unpropitious, having rained 
almost the entire day, yet the meeting was the best attended and 
the most interesting of any meeting held for the last ten years. 

C. E. NEWMAN, Sec'y Pro Tern. 


TTJ3STE 17TH, 1885. 

The twenty-ninth annual meeting of the Firelands Historical 
Society was held in Whittlesey Hall, Norwalk, Ohio, on Wednes- 
day, June 17 th, 1885. 


The meeting was called to order by the President, C. Wood- 
ruff, of Peru, who made a few opening remarks, and called upon 
F. R. Loomis to open the meeting with prayer. 

The Secretary's report of the last annual meeting, and of sub- 
sequent quarterly and Board meetings, was read by the Secretary, 
H. L. Stewart, and approved by the Society. 

0. E. Newman offered the following report of funds held by 
him as Treasurer till succeeded by Treasurer C. W. Manahan: 

July 1(5,1884. To Cash on hand annual meeting July 16, 1884 $321 59 

" 21, " " Balance of Permanent Fund 200 00 

" Interest on " " 40 00 

Aug. 14, " " Fourteen annual membership fees 7 00 

20, " " Sales of annual publications by (L C. Wright 6 60 

Sept. 17, " " Seventy-four annual publications sold 37 00 

" Order No. 8 4 3g 

Total «616~55 


Sept. 17, 1884. By Order No. 7, P. R. Loomis $90 00 

" Librarian, as per bill rendered 26 55 

" Cash to C. W. Manahan, Treas 500 00 

Total $616 55 

Treasurer Manahan* then presented his report, showing a bal- 
ance of $23.89 in the treasury, but reported an outstanding: indebted- 
ness of $25.07, being ;l deficiency of $1.18. 

On motion, Messrs. P. N. Schuyler, Philo Comstock and F. R. 

I mis were appointed an Auditing Committee to examine the 

above reports. 

<\ E. Newman, the Librarian, next presented his report, giving 
a detailed account of the volumes of the Pioneer on hand, and 
other valuable information. The report was approved. 


The following is his report of "the Pioneers" on hand, viz: 


1 Bound Volume Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive. 

1 " " " 7 " 11, " 

2 " " 1866 to 1876. 

1 Copy Volume 1, No. 1 June, 1858. 

2 " " 1, " 2 Nov., 1858. 

18 " " 2, " 1 " 1859. 

1 " " 2, " 2 March, 1860. 

83 " " 2, " 4 Sept., 1861. 

23 " " 3 June, 1862. 

5 " " 4, " 1863. 

21 " " 5 " 1864. 

16 " " 6, " 1865. 

95 " " 7, " 1866. 

5 " " 8, " 1867. 

221 " " 9, " 1868. 

101 " " 10, " 1870. 

181 " " 11, " 1874. 

271 " " 12, ;. " 1876. 

479 " " 13, " 1878, 

548 " " 1, New Series " 1882. 

346 u " 2, " " " 1884. 

F. R. Loomis, the Biographer, next made his report, as follows: 
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Another year has passed since last we gathered in annual con- 
sultation. The number of our pioneer fathers and mothers is rap- 
idly lessening. The past winter has been an unusually severe one 
upon the aged; many have passed to their eternal home. We are 
not able to report the exact number, but not less than forty persons 
who may properly be termed our pioneers, have gone the way of 
all the earth during the year past. The number remaining who 
are entitled to this honorable distinction, as pioneers, is small in- 
deed; and a few more years will find their places all vacant, or oc- 
cupied by later generations. It is a sad reflection that in a few 
short years the generation of men and women, who braved toils, 
dangers, and hardships in the early settlement of these Firelands, 
will have passed to that bourne from whence none ever return to 
relate their experiences at pioneer meetings or other gatherings ou 
this side of the dark rivlx. 

How reverently we should regard these gray haired veterans 
of many winters, whose storehouse of knowledge and experience 
is so full of valuable suggestions, gamed wisdom, and interesting 

How carefully we should glean every item of information we 
can possible obtain from them, and write it down and print it in 


permanent form for the information, entertainment, and benefit of 
our children and our children's children, unto many generations 
yet unborn. 

How inestimable in value will become these traditions, these 
personal experiences, these historic facts, as the years roll forward. 

In the busy rush of to-day, we frequently forget to, accurately 
and carefully note the history of the day's incidents. A few years 
hence the memory is taxed to recall the events that have become 
historical, although at the moment little thought of. How all im- 
portant then that a society like this be well sustained; that the 
important passing events that make up the history of a community, 
be carefully preserved in an authentic and permanent form. 

You who are older appreciate this more than we who are 
younger. For you have discovered by experience how much better 
it is to make record of events as they transpire, than to try to re- 
call them in after years, when dates and occurrences become min- 
gled and confused. 

This Society has aimed, from the beginning, to gather statis- 
tics, history, biography, tradition, and anecdotes from the lives and 
lips of those who were first upon this historic ground. A valuable 
fund of such information has been secured and put in shape for 
permanent preservation. This includes much that to day could not 
be gathered. Had it not been obtained when it was it would have 
been forever lost. There is still much that ought speedily to be 
secured, and at once preserved by being printed in our permanent 
volumes. We err seriously that we do not more earnestly feel the 
importance of this. 

The biographies of all our early pioneers, that have not al- 
ready been published, should be procured and printed very soon. 

Historical events yet unpublished should be put in print. 

Current historical events of importance should be carefully 
recorded at the time of occurrence, and at our convenience pub- 
lished in our " Pioneer." 

Obituaries should be secured and printed. 

*• Thus this Society would perform a mission that would place it 

among the best of benevolent institutions; would give it a name 

of honor and a place of usefulness among the good things of our 

land, that would cause our children to rise up and call us blessed. 

As Biographer, I have received the obituary notices of several 
deceased pioneers, and they will be published in the next volume 
of the k ' Pioneer." 


There are several others of our old citizens, who have recently 
died, whose obituary notices we would be glad to have. They 
should be handed in without delay. Prompt attention to these 
matters gives us a connected and well preserved history of the life 
and death of our pioneers. 

The Biographer's report was received and endorsed by the 

Upon motion, a committee of five, on nomination of officers 
for the ensuing year, was appointed by the President, as follows, 
viz: J. D. Easton, G. T. Stewart, C. E. Newman, P. N. Schuyler, 
Isaac Fowler. 

Remarks were next made by several members present. 

The Constitution was read and explained by P N. Schuyler, 

Considerable discussion followed upon the question as to who 
are members and what constituted membership in the Society; 
pending which the meeting adjourned until 2 o'clock p. m. 


Meeting called to order at 2:15. 

The" report of Committee on Nominations was made by P. N. 
Schuyler, Esq., as follows, viz: 

President, Chauncey Woodruff Peru- 
Vice President, A. D. Skellinger New London. 

" " I.T.Reynolds , Berlin Heights. 

Recording Secretary, L. C. Laylin Norwalk. 

Corresponding Secretary, II. L. Stewart " 

Treasurer, C. W. Manahan " 

Biographer, F. R. Loomis " 

Librarian and Custodian, C. E. Newman " 

Directors and Trustees, P. N. Schuyler. Bellevue. 

G.T.Stewart Norwalk. 

" " S. A. Wildman 

" " " " J. D. Easton Monroeville. 

" " " C. E. Newman Norwalk. 


Martin Kellogg Bronson, Huron County. 

W. W. Stiles . . Clarksfield, " 

C. B. Simmons Fairfield, " 

J. T. Townsend Fitchvillc, " 


Alexander Lewis, 1st., (Steuben P. O.) . .Greenfield, Huron County. 

J. B. Hale Greenwich, 

Bartlett Davis Hartland, " " 

E. O. Merry, (Bellevue P. O.) Lyme, " 

Erastus Dickinson New Haven, " " 

J. M. Rawson New London, " " 

N. G. Sherman Norwalk, 

Thomas Brown Norwich, " " 

Charles Roe.. . Peru, " 

Daniel Sweetland . Richmond, " " 

J. H. Donaldson ... Ripley, " 

A. S. Skilton Ridgetield, " 

Lovell McCrillis Sherman, " " 

R. C. Dean Townsend, " '* 

John G.Sherman Wakeman, " " 

J. H. McElhinney Rnggles, Ashland County. 

O. C. Tillinghast, (Berlin Heights) Berlin, Erie County. 

George W. Clary Florence, " " 

Samuel Bernis Groton, " " 

C. L. Hill Huron, " 

Erastus Huntington Kelleys Island, " " 

F. G. Lockwood Milan, u " 

E. Radcliff Oxford, " 

James Parker Perkins, " " 

Louis Wells Vermillion, " " 

John T. Mack Sandusky, " 

Henry C. Norton, (Sandusky) Perkins, " " 

Dr. Win. Storey, (Castalia) Margaretta, " " 

J. II. Norman, (Bloomingville P. O.) Oxford, " " 

On motion, this report was adopted. 

The Corresponding Secretary was, on motion, authorized to 
notify each one of the Township Historians of his appointment, 
and explain his duties, and report vacancies to the Board of Direc- 
tors, who were empowered to fill all such vacancies then occurring 
and which might afterwards arise. 

The Auditing Committee then reported that the reports of the 
Treasurers entrusted to them for examination were correct, and 
that the Permanent Fund of $500 was duly loaned on mortgage 
security. Accepted. 

The Biographer read a list of about forty names of pioneers 
who had died during the year just passed. 


On motion, all members of the Society were requested to record 
their place of birth, time of birth, and time of moving onto the 
Firelands, for the use of the Society. 

A call made for any who were sons of Revolutionary fathers, 
was responded to by Isaac Fowler, of Berlin. 

F. R. Loomis, G. T. Stewart, Frank Read, J. D. Easton, Mrs. 
Persons, C. E. Newman, Mrs. Lawrence and P. N. Schuyler, re- 
ported as grandchildren of Revolutionary soldiers. 

Richard Gardiner, of Monroeville, celebrated the day as his 
90th birthday. 

Following are the ages of some of the older pioneers present: 
Isaac Fowler, 80 years; Myron Breckenridge, 90; Eri Keeler, SO; 
Mr. Hopkins, 80; Mr. Blackburn, 84; D. W. Tennant, 82. 

Following this came interesting remarks from C. E. Newman, 
Isaac Fowler, C. W. Manahan, Eri Keeler, C. Woodruff, and others, 
consisting of interesting and amusing reminiscences of pioneer life. 

The Following singular clipping from the Norwalk Chronicle, 
was read by C. W. Manahan, viz: 

"Through the kindness of J. S. Mi not we have on our table a 
copy of the Ulster County Gazette (N. Y.) dated Saturday, January 
4th, 1800. It is a small specimen of a newspaper compared with 
the papers of to-day, being but a folio of four columns, about the 
size of the Drummer Boy Program issued from this office recently. 
It is dressed in mourning for the death of George Washington 
and has an account of his obsequies. The only other item especial- 
ly noticeable is an advertisement which runs as follows: 


The one half of a • 


With a convenient place for BUILDING, lying in the town of 
Rochester. By the Mill is an inexhaustible quantity of 
PINEWOOD.— And also, 


Negro W e n eh. 

Any person inclined to purchase, may know the particulars by 
applying to JOHN SCllOONMAKER, jun., at Rochester. 

November 23, 1799. 

How would such an ad. look in papers uow-a-days. Verily 
times have changed since 1800." 


Also an interesting contribution by I. M. Gillett, entitled, "The 
Old Chimney Corner," was read by F. R. Loomis. 

The President then reported the next quarterly meeting called 
for Fairfield, to be held during the following September. 

Meeting then adjourned. 

H. L. STEWART, Secretary. 

Meeting of Directors and Trustees, 

AUGUST 15th, 1885. 

Directors met in the law office of G. T. Stewart August 15th, 

IT. L. Stewart was appointed Secretary of the meeting, and S. 
A. Wildman, Capt. Chauncey Woodruff, G.T.Stewart, C.E.New- 
man and J. D. Easton were duly sworn in and qualified as Trustees. 

On motion, it was decided to hold the next quarterly meeting 
at North Fairfield, some time in September or October, at the 
local committee's convenience. 

Capt. Chauncey Woodruff was appointed a committee of one 
to visit North Fairfield, appoint said local committee and arrange 
for the meeting with them. 

On motion, C. E. Newman was appointed a committee of one 
to obtain lowest bids on printing the next annual publication and 
report in the afternoon. 

A bill of the Norwalk News for $2.50 for printing was duly 
audited, and an appropriation of $15.00 for the renting of a library 
and relic store room made. 

Meeting then adjourned. 

II. L. STEWART, Secretary. 

Meeting of Directors and Trustees. 

AUGUST 19th, 1885. 

A meeting of the Board of Directors and Trustees, of the 
Firelands Historical Society, was held at G. T. Stewart's law office, 


August 19th, 1885. Present, G. T. Stewart, C. E. Newman, S. A 
Wildman, Directors, and L. C. Lay 1 in, Secretary. 

Mr. Newman, committee on procuring bids for printing Vol- 
ume III of the Firelands Pioneer, reported that he was unable to 
secure but one written bid for doing the work, and that from The 
Chronicle Publishing Company, of Norwalk, O., the proposition 
being as follows, viz: 

" To the Board of Directors and Trustees of the Firelands Histori- 
cal Society: 

Gentlemen: — We will publish and print Volume III, New 
Series, of "The Firelands Pioneer," in form, style and quality simi- 
lar to Volume II, just as soon as we can conveniently get it out, for 
one dollar per page, for (500) live hundred copies, complete, pro- 
viding the number of pages shall be 125 or more; the cover to 
count as pages. 

The pay for same to suit the convenience of the Society's treas- 
ury; only we are to have 6 per cent, interest annually on the sum 
the publication amounts to, from the date of the completion of 
the volume until the whole sum is paid, less endorsements. 

The Chronicle Publishing Co." 

On motion of S. A. Wildman, the offer of the Chronicle Pub- 
lishing Company was accepted. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

L. C. LAYLIN, Secretary. 

Norwalk, O., August 19th, 1885. 


At North Fairfield^ on Wednesday, October 7th, 1885. 

The following announcement of the Quarterly Meeting to be 
held in Fairfield was published in the newspapers of the Firelands, 


The Firelands Historical Society will hold its next meeting at 
North Fairfield, Wednesday, October 7th, 1885. The exercises 
will commence at 10 o'clock a. m., in the Town Hall. Revs. T. F. 
Hildreth and J. M. Seymour, of Norwalk, with others, will deliver 
addresses. The citizens of Fairfield are expecting a large turnout 


of the old pioneers, and will give them a royal reception. All are 
cordially invited to come and participate in this commendable re- 
union of the heroes of our early history. 

The following are the names of the local committee at Fair- 
held, viz: Win. Johnston and wife, C. Whitney and wife, A. L. 
Simmons and wile, E. Silliman and wife, C. Kimberly and wife, I. 
I>. Hoyt and wife, D. M. Keith and wife, II. H. Hoyt and wife, D. 
Kellogg and wife, C. Rowley and wife, R. McDonald and wife, A. 
C. Taylor and wife, G. S. Jennings and wife, Dr. D. H. Reed and 
and wife, E. Price and wife, Lewis Woodruff and wife. 


The following will be the programme of exorcises at the meet- 

in i 

Singing by choir. 

Prayer by Rev. Mr. Wilson. 

Address of welcome, Rev. R. J. Smith. 

Response, S. A. Wildman. 


Business. Reports, etc. 

Recess for refreshments. 


Address, Rev. J. M. Seymour. 


Address, Rev. T. F. Hildreth. 

L. C. LAY LIN, Sec'y. President. 

The Firelands Historical Society held their Quarterly Meeting 
for L885, in the Town Hall, at North Fairfield, on Wednesday, 
October 7th, with a large attendance of citizens from various 
quarters of Huron County. The hall was tastefully decorated with 

beautiful (lowers. 


The meeting was called to order about 10:30 a. m. by the Presi- 
dent, ('apt. C. Woodruff, of Peru. 

A chorus of excellent voices rendered an appropriate anthem, 
after winch the Rev.. I. N. Wilson, of the Disciples Church in Fair- 
tield, Led in prayer. The choir then sang again. 

The Rev. R. J. Smith, of the Congregational Church in Fair- 


field, then gave a cordial and happy address of welcome in behalf 
of the citizens of Fairfield. 

In the absence of S. A. Wildman, Esq., who was to have re- 
sponded, P. N. Schuyler, Esq., of Bellevue, was called upon and 
made a very neat and appropriate response to the eloquent words 
of welcome given by Mr. Smith. 

After another song by the choir, Mr. Brown, of Fitchville, made 
a few remarks with reference to an old badge he had in his posses- 
sion and which he exhibited to the audience. 

C. E. Newman was chosen Secretary pro tern, (in the absence 
of the regular Secretary of the Society,) and H. W. Hathaway As- 
sistant Secretary. 

Prof. John C. Sanders, of Cleveland, recited T. Buchanan 
Read's poem, -'The Autumn Scene," in a pleasing and attractive 
manner. After another song the meeting took a recess for dinner. 


A bountiful feast of good provender had been provided by the 
generous ladies of Fairfield under the direction of a most efficient 
local committee; to these splendid viands the multitude did ample 
justice; all being comfortably seated in the rooms of the Grange, 
across the street from the Town Hall. 


After dinner the meeting was called to order by the President. 

At 1:30 p. m a stirring anthem was rendered by a chorus coin- 
posed of the following persons, viz: Mrs. F. L. Smith, Miss Hal- 
tie G. Felton, Miss Mary Smith, Miss Anna Sturges, Dr. D. M. 
Keith, A. L. Simmons and L. Adams, with Mrs. D. Stringham as 
organist, and the whole under the direction of Mr. A. Tuttle, who 
led the singing at this meeting and who also directed the music at 
a similar meeting in Fairfield some twenty-three years ago. 

The hall was filled; every seat being occupied; some three 
hundred or more people were present, a large number of them be- 
ing aged persons. 

By request of the President, the Hon. F. R. Loornis of Nor- 
walk made some remarks, calling the attention of the audience to 
the "Pioneer" publications of the Society, ami soliciting subscrip- 
tions for them. He also explained the objects of the Society, the 
cost of membership, etc., and asked those present to become mem- 

A committee was appointed to canvass the audience, who 


afterward reported some memberships to the Society and several sub- 
scriptions for the forthcoming volume, No. Ill, of " The Pioneer." 

Another song by the choir was rendered, after which the Presi- 
dent introduced the Rev. J. M. Seymour, of Norwalk, who made 
a fine address upon the theme, " Some Compensations of the Pio- 
neer Life and the Perpetual Necessity of the Pioneer Spirit." 
(The address will be found in another part of this volume.) 

The choir then sang a choice selection, entitled, " Twilight 
Thoughts," after which the Rev. T. F. Hildreth, of Norwalk, ad- 
dressed the audience in his own impetuous, eloquent and impressive 
manner, giving touching incidents in his own early experiences, 
paying high tribute to the virtues, spirit and endurance of our 
pioneer fathers and mothers, relating affecting, and humorous 
stories of pioneer life in the early days of the Firelands. His ad- 
dress was soul-stirring indeed and held the audience spell-bound 
from beginning to ending. He treated the living questions of the 
past and present with wholesome vigor and was frequently ap- 

Another song was given, after which the following resolutions 
were offered by the Hon. F. R. Loomis, viz, 

IZesolved, That we sincerely thank the local committee of Fair- 
field for their pains-taking services by which this meeting has been 
made so interesting and successful. 

liesolved, That the hearty thanks of this Society are due and 
arc hereby tendered to the citizens of Fairfield for their cordial 
greetings and generous hospitality, and especially to the kind 
hearted ladies for the splendid and bountiful dinner provided so 
abundantly for all. 

Resolved, That we greatly appreciate and hope to profit by the 
noble thoughts uttered by the speakers at this meeting; and that 
we express our gratitude to them for their presence and for their 
inspiring addresses. 

Resolved, That we heartily show our appreciation and tender 
our thanks to the choir for the cheer their sweet, well rendered 
songs have afforded us. 

The resolutions were unanimously approved and adopted by 
the Society. 

There being no further business, the meeting now adjourned 
in the best, of spirits with many happy greetings and a hope uni- 
versally expressed that such gatherings may be of frequent occur- 
rence in t he future. 

C. E. NEWMAN, Secretary. 
11. W. HATHAWAY, Asst. Secy 




The following are the Life Members of the Firelarids Histori- 
cal Society, viz: 

Theodore William: 
C. H. Gallup, 
Calvin Whitney, 
S. A. Wildman, 
J. F. Laninof. 


P. N. Schuyler, Bellevue, 
G. T. Stewart, Norwalk, 
Abby N. Stewart, " 
C. E. Newman, 
F. R. Loomis, " 

John Gardiner, " 

Martin Kellogg, Honorary Member. 
The following are the Annual Members for 1885-6, viz: 
I. T. Reynolds, Berlin Heights, Chauncey Woodruff, Peru, 
Isaac Fowler, " " 

James D. Easton, Monroeville, 
Myron Breckenridge, Norwalk, 
C. W. Manahan, 
Harlan Stewart, " 

C. H. Jackson, Hartland, 
Eri Keeler, Fremont, 
Prof. J. C. Sanders, Cleveland, 
Israel P. Wicks, Fairfield, 
P. L. Mitchell 


An Address Delivered Eefore the 28th Annual Meeting of 

the Firelands Historical Society, in Whittlesey 

Hall, Norwalk, 0., July 16th, 1884. 


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I will not claim to be one the pioneers of the Firelands, but 
have learned from tradition, and otherwise, much of their early life, 
and from my own early experience can catch well defined glimpses 
of the hardships, and the fun and frolic with all, of pioneer life. 

My early years found me amidst the dense wilderness of our 
neighboring county of Crawford — within hearing of the "Wolf's 
long howl" on Honey Creek, and the savage whoop of the Wyan- 
dotte on the plains of the Sandusky. 

The pioneer had pushed out from New England, New York, 
" The Mohawk,"and the "Jarsies " to " The Ohio," where he essayed 
to carve out a home in one of the gloomiest of forests. 

One of my earliest recollections is of a chopping bee — I think 
a gratuitous day's work on the part of the "neighbors" — for a 
widow whose husband had died in the first grapple with the wilder- 
ness. I wanted to go; my father carried me to the " clearing " and 
seated me on a slump out of reach of danger and there I witnessed 
one of those scenes common enough to the pioneer, but to me 
something so grand and exh iterating that the picture has remained 
a perpetual fixture in my imagination. Years afterwards, when I 
was able to read, I blundered on Homer's description of the falling 


the trees for the funeral pile of the great Patroclus, and could but 
fancy that Homer (I did not know then that he was blind) must 
have sat on a stump and witnessed just such a chopping bee or he 
never could have written his description: 

"Loud sounds the axe redoubling strokes on strokes, 
"On all sides round the forest hurls her oaks 
''Headlong. Deep echoing groans the thickets brown; 
"Then rattling, crackling, crashing, thunder down." 

Such scenes were the order of the day. Everywhere the woods 
resounded with the stroke of the axe. The old pioneer "let in the 
day light," built his cabin, garnished its walls with dried pump- 
kin and venison, danced on his puncheon floor in his moccasins, or 
with bare feet, got jolly over an ox sleigh ride, went to church at 
the toot of the dinner horn, and knew and loved his neighbors 
from one end of the county to the other. 

Our mothers accompanied the hum of the spinning wheel with 
the nursery hymn and soothed their babies to sleep. Wove their 
own comely garments, and clothed their lords with the inevitable 
sheeps gray. 

They were indeed a hardy, generous race, those indomitable 
pioneers. The forest disappeared before their sturdy blows. The 
desert was made to 

"Blossoms as the rose." 

Cities, villages and hamlets sprang up. Our great big splendid 
farms took the place of the primeval woods. Orchards, gardens 
and vinyards the place of tangled brush and poisonous weeds. 
Even in their own generation, canals and railroads succeeded the 
ox cart, and wealth and commerce soon became familiar to the 
toiling and famished poineer. 

The period of this transition though seemingly so brief, yet 
few of the earlier settlers have survived even this short period. 

But these cherished memories abide with us. Here are the 
schools and churches they planted. The genial and moral tone of 
society is a perpetual reminder of the worth and example of our 
pioneer fathers and mothers, and we will give them our best rever- 

But looking way beyond the borders of the Firelands there is 
an almost limitless land over which civilization has spread during' 
the period of which we have been speaking. The territory west 
of the Reserve, that is west of Huron and Erie counties— the 
great North Western territory still belonged to the wild savage, 
and yet w T ithin a period of a life time our pushing, energetic peo- 


pie have seized the wide domain and have spanned the continent. 

What a vast area — what colonies, states, cities and marts of 
commerce now spread over the great West. 

We may speak of the Firelands as a splendid example of the 
force of American enterprise, bat it is but a speck on the map of 
our wonderful development. 

Our first explorations of any particular value, west of the 
Mississippi, dates but a little while back; but the pioneer moved 
on in the track of the explorer; and the great rivers, grand cas- 
cades, boundless plains and prairies, and lofty mountains, so won- 
derful to the explorer, soon became familiar and common place. 

The irrepressible yankee went west, and we find him — 

"Driving round St. Mary's Falls, 
"Upon his loaded wain, 

"And leaves upon the pictured rocks 
"His fresh tobacco stain." 

And still on and on, and up the great rivers enterprise pushes for- 
ward, colonies follow, commerce springs up, and 

"Behind the squaw's light birch canoe 
"The steamer rooks and raves 

"And city lots are staked for sale 
"Above old Indian graves." 

I have but a word more. It is not at all astonishing that suc- 
cess attends the pioneer. That part of the community that breaks 
away from birthplace, family and home and seeks the frontier is 
always the bold, hardy enterprising. He would have succeeded at 
home, but he wanted elbow room and "went West." During the 
* late war it was a most noticeable fact that troops from the frontier 
States and settlements were the best mustered and by far the 
stronger and better soldiers. 

In conclusion we may congratulate ourselves that so much of 
the pioneer spirit remains with us, and that so much of enjoyment 
is the heritage of the sons and daughters of the Firelands. 


An Address Delivered before the 28th Annual Meeting of 

the Firelands Historical Society, in Whittlesey 

Hall, Norwalk, July 16th 5 1884. 


I am willing to admit that I am not much of a pioneer. I am 
willing to admit that my personal recollection of pioneer life of 
40, 50, 60, 70, and even 80 years ago is somewhat vague and indis- 
tinct. I admit I was quite young at these times. I do not pretend 
to be able to give you many of my own recollections. I admit 
that the evidence that I shall give of the days of my grandfather 
will be mainly hearsay testimony. When my grandfather was a 
young man and a pioneer I admit we didn't know much of one 
another. I will admit, and it requires no inconsiderable humility 
for any speaker to make such an admission, that most of you know 
a sjreat deal more about what I am to talk to you about than I do 
myself. I admit this, only so far as the men are concerned.. 1 
wish it understood that I make no allusion to the recollections of 
any of the ladies here, only to the age and experience of the men, 
for far be it from my desire to trifle with so serious, so delicate a 
topic as a lady's age. I would not intimate for a moment that any 
lady here can look back further than fifteen or twenty years at 

Living here, as mostof its do, in the quiet and peaceful serenity 
of this Western Reserve, it is difficult for most of us to obtain a 


proper conception of the hurry, and bustle, and tumult, of the 
times in which we now live. Of the wonderful changes of to-day 
from yesterday. Of the social, industrial, progressive revolutions 
now fighting out without wave of flag or flash of bayonet, yet 
which almost daily usher in new eras, and new systems. To some 
of these changes I would call your attention to-day, when we look 
at the picture I shall try to draw for you of Pioneer Life as it was, 
and as it is. 

To be a pioneer now is altogether a different matter from what 
it was when my grandfather was a young man and a pioneer. A 
man can be a pioneer now-a-days in broad cloth and kid gloves. 
He used to have to dress in deer skins or homespun or go without. 
A man now-a-days can ride a sulky plow, sit on a cushion with an 
umbrella over his head to shade him from the sun, read novels and 
smoke cigarettes all da} , do no heavier work than hold a pair of 
lines and yet break up a hundred and sixty acre homestead of as 
flue corn land and wheat land, out on our western prairies, as the 
sun shines on, in one summer, and have it all gold with waving 
grain the next. Our pioneers here couldn't do that. They had to 
take off their coats and shoulder their axes and pitch in. They 
had to chop, and chop and chop. They had to burn, and burn and 
burn. They had to grub, and grub and grub. They had to blast, 
and blast and blast, and they had to keep this up years, and years 
and years, and I will warrant that there are pioneers here to-day 
who have toiled- away for thirty, forty years, and yes, some for a 
half a century, and toiled hard too, and the grubs and stones and 
stumps arc not all out of their farms yet. 

When the young man living down in York State, or Massa- 
chuestts, or Maine, or Connecticut, thirty, forty or fifty years ago 
wanted to be a pioneer, he came out here to Ohio. He would ride 
out in a covered emigrant wagon and jounce, and jounce and jounce 
over three or four hundred miles of corduroy roads until he at 
hist had to pack his family on a horse and his household goods on 
his back and pick his way on loot through the 1 woods. He sat up 
nights to keep the wolves and bears off, and didn't dare to talk 
above a whisper in the day time, lest some sportive savage should 
discover them and seal]) them. He used to come also by the water 
route (by the raging canal). He would take passage on the Erie 
canal, and was a very lucky passenger if, after paying his way, he 
didn't have to walk on the tow path and drive the horse. Then he 
would have to buy an interest in some lake boat to get the privilege 


of being dropped off in the woods somewhere along shore. In 
either ease the trip took him at least three to six weeks. He had 
to eat salt pork and bacon, dried venison, corn bread and what he 
could shoot. He had to sleep on the leaves, with a root for a pil- 
low and the sky for a roof most of the way. lie had to pay for 
everything he got, and a good deal that he didn't get, in good hard 
"down east" gold, lie had to take his change in whiskey and 
muskrat hides. He had to pay five and ten dollars an aere for his 
land and it eost him a hundred in hard day's work by the time he 
got it so he could plow it and raise crops. 

The young man who now-a-days wants to be a pioneer ean step 
into a palace car; he will be attended by all the comforts and luxu- 
ries of life. Smiling-faced white-aproned waiters are at his elbow 
to attend his every want. He dines upon quail on toast, he sups 
the vintage of '49, and he gaily masticates the soul-thrilling frie- 
caseed spring hen of 1812. He is whirled in an hour over more 
miles than his grandfather could get over in twj days. lie don't 
have to sit up nights to keep the wolves and bears away. The por- 
ter is all there is to molest or make him afraid. The trip costs 
him $10 where it cost his grandfather $100. He finds his land for 
$5 and $10 an acre and already for the plow. He finds as good 
land as we have here after we have put fifty and a hundred years 
of hard work upon it. He finds schools and churches, He finds 
railroads; he finds lawyers and law suits, and editors, and other 
luxuries and what our pioneers never could find after they had 
raised their crops, he finds a market. Our pioneers used to hard 
wheat two hundred miles, sell it for thirty-five cents a bushel, and 
the roads were so bad that they couldn't haul over twenty-five 
bushels to the load. They used to haul from Riohland, and Craw- 
ford, and Seneca, and other counties up through here to Milan, 
where it was shipped out on the old canal. They didn't have many 
hotels in those days. » They slept under the wagons, took with 
them their food, fried their own bacon, ate their meals in the snow 
and the rain. Eating in those days was a necessity, not a pleasure. 
It was hard work for the cook to keep on good terms with hunger. 
These were the days when they received ten cents a bushel for 
corn; when they sold four bushels of potatoes for a quarter, thirty- 
three dozen eggs for a dollar, and a hundred pounds of pork for a 
dollar and a half. When they got their money it was old wild cat 
bank currency, and times were extraordinarily good if it was worth 
fifty cents on the dollar. 




The grain buyer in Milan had to ship his grain on the canal to 
the lake. Then it was at the mercy of the wind and tide, for they 
had no steam boats in those days, till it reached the Erie canal. 
Thence it slowly worked down to New York. This took weeks 
and weeks, and by the time it got there it was a lucky trip if it 
hadn't moulded, or if the freights and canal duties and rats hadn't 
eaten it mos& aU up. Thm\ the grain Jmyer had to take Mlia-t he 
could get for it, and it took weeks and weeks before he learned 
whether he had made anything or lost everything. To-day it is 
different. The railroads and telegraph have brought New York 
and Liverpool and London and Chicago right to our doors, and up 
to the granaries of the pioneers of to-day in Dakota, Idaho, Nebras- 
ka and Texas. The pioneer in the valley of the Red, the Missiouri, 
the Rio Grande, gets within a few cents per bushel as much as you 
lo here, and you get within a few cents a bushel as much as they 
•an get in the best markets of the world. The man who buys your 
grain here to-day of you or in Dakota of our pioneer, sells it by 
electricity in Chicago, or New York, or St. Louis, or Cleveland, 
gets his money with his profit placed to his credit at his bankers 
by telegraph within an hour, where in pioneer days here they 
couldn't do it in a month. 

Our pioneers used to plow with a yoke of steers, sow their 
wheat by hand, drag it in with a tree top, cut it with a sickle or a 
cradle and thresh it with a flail. Our pioneers in the West to-day 
are plowing with great steam plows that take a half dozen furrows 
at a time. They cut with self-binders and headers that take six- 
teen feet at a sweep and thresh with steam threshers that burn 
only straw. 

Our pioneers here used to think they could raise a good deal 
of wheat, and we, most of us, now think we do here. But our pio- 
neers in the West have thousand acre fields of wheat almost as 
plentifully as we have ten acre fields. Out at Laramore last fall 
we were on one farm as large as Huron county, and all under the 
plow and raising No. 1 hard wheat. The men on their gang plows 
would swing their horses oats in one end of a bag, their dinner 
and a jug of water — we suppose it was water — in the other. They 
would climb into their seats in the morning and drive straight east 
till noon. They would stop and feed and plow back home to sup- 
per. They wouldn't plow but four furrows in a day. One furrow 
twelve miles long would be a tremendous furrow in this country 
to-day, and if we had told our pioneers thirty, forty and fifty years 


ago that the pioneers of to-day would be farming as they are, if 
we had told them that Mr.- Dalrymple, in Dakota, would be raising 
wheat in fields as big as the Firelands, selling it by the ear load 
instead of the bushel, that Mr. Brady, in Texas, would be raising 
tens and tens of thousands of eattle on a farm nearly as big as the 
State of Ohio, and that in a little over two weeks after they left 
his raneh they would be served "a la Francaise in the eafe's of 
Paris, or in hold Henglish roast beef" in Pieadilly and Pall Mall, 
they would put it very mildly if they had merely ealled us out- 
rageous, uneonscionable, unmitigated, eggregreous liars. 

The first rude log hut was built, where this city now stands, in 
1808. So it has taken us nearly a century to build up our city. 
Our pioneers to-day are not only raising crops by steam and mar- 
keting them by electricity, but they are building cities in the same 
way. I have had the pleasure of seeing a city as good as this that 
was built in ninety days. A year ago last May I visited Lake 
Minnewauken, as the unpoetical red man calls it, or Devil's Lake, 
as his poetic white brother dubs it, away out in Northwestern Da- 
kota. We were in the unbroken wilderness, a day's ride west 
from a human habitation (or railroad), "one hundred miles west of 
a lemon" and two hundred miles west of a plastered house. Just 
three months later, last August, I visited the same spot, but it was 
changed as if by the stroke of an enchauter's wand. 

A hundred years seemed to unfold their shadowy arms about 
me. There was a city where before was a wilderness. A thriving 
city with thousands of inhabitants, with churches, schools, saloons, 
variety shows, beer gardens, and all other crowning glories of our 
proud civilization. They had docks and wharves and steam boats, 
electric lights and paved streets, roller mills turning out two hun- 
dred barrels of flour a day, a government building, railroad shops, 
a court house, a jail, and a smashing big city debt. They had a 
cemetery laid out and started with three graves. Two of the oc- 
cupants had been shot and the other died from some other natural 
western complaint that I didn't learn. He was probably hung. 
And this is the way our pioneers of to-day are farming and build- 
ing cities and developing the resources of our great western 
wilderness. We won't have any wilderness in this country long 
before I get to be a grandfather. The pioneers out there will have 
done as our pioneers have here, turned the howling wilderness into 
a laughing, singing, blooming garden. And right here we want to 
thank our pioneers, every one, living and dead. The young men 
of to-day are proud of this great, grand, splendid country. Of the 
boundless plains, the sublime mountains, the great rushing, roaring 
rivers, shores lashed by two oceans, the grand anthem ot Niagara; 
we are proud of them, but we are prouder yet of our fathers, our 
grandfathers and great grandfathers, and yes, our mothers, our 
grandmothers and our great grandmothers, for covering it all over 
with wealth, and glory, and liberty. 


Beinsr an Abstract of an Address Delivered before the Fire- 

lands Historical Society at a Quarterly Meeting, held 

ill Peru, 0., on Wednesday, October 8th, 1884. 


Members of the Firelands Historical Society; 

Ladies and Gentlemen: — The honor this society has bestowed 
upon me iif the invitation to address you, is only exceeded by the 
honor and pleasure of uniting with you in a common spirit of re- 
membrance. The spirit that walks softly, reverently and recep- 
tively, the arched chambers of the past. 

I congratulate you as members of this Society that your spirit 
is broader than your organization. The cause for congratulation 
lying in the fact that if this were not true your organization would 
soon become too great for your spirit. That body whose spirit 
should only equal the limits of its organic relations, would of 
necessity become introspective, narrow, and feeding upon its own 
substance rapidly exhaust its vital forces. 

In your organization, there is comprehended, as an arena, five 
hundred thousand acres of green fields, and waving forests, threaded 
with silver streams, and washed on its northern line by the pure 
waters of Erie; but in your spirit there is comprehended the arena 
of a, world, with its broad continents and wide seas. Immediately 
this spirit lends to the collection and preservation of facts in the 
struggle that has marked the change from the forest threaded by 
Indian trails, to tin' cultivated lields, verdant meadows, populous 
towns and the highways of travel, in the Firelands; but in its free 


range, your spirit is the historical spirit, that does honor to the 
past, in preserving its history, studying its lessons, and making the 
present worthy the elements that gave it birth. It is this, your 
spirit, that I touch and sympathize with to-day, and in view of 
what it comprehends, invite your thoughtful attention to my 
theme — 


As in this spirit we tread the past, we enter chambers filled 
with the hard breathings of hope, in a life and death struggle with 
white-faced Despair. And we hear the sound of that mighty 
struggle, seen only in results, that has ever and shall ever rage — 
the struggle of an evolving divine purpose with resisting nature; 
a struggle that standing in the historical perspective and bending 
attentive ears, we hear above the incident clash of arms. 

Such a struggle is this that comes to our ears, when the trained 
minds, and civilized forces of southern Europe, give way before 
the irresistable sweep of the barbarian hordes that with untrained 
minds and uncivilized forces pour out of the North. 

Here arms were incidents. In the ebb of that barbarian tide, 
came to light the true struggle and victory, seen in the rapid trans- 
formations that filled the North with the fairest civilization and 
gave to the world its intellectual and political rulers. In this 
spirit of remembrance we enter other chambers of the past, filled 
with the sound- of creaking cordage, and the wash of waves against 
the vessel's side, as she bears adventurous souls out to unknown 
shores, beyond unknown seas. And out of the past there comes 
the weirdy thrilling night cries of the forest, the twang of the bow, 
the sharp report of the rifle, the ring of the woodman's axe, and 
the hum of the growing industry, increasing to the roar of a 
great nation's life. And then there come the minor chords of 
hope and fear, life and death, and of preparation and fulfill ment, 
in the lives of those individuals who mark a generation or an age. 
To walk the past in the spirit of remembrance is to learn the truth, 
that I cannot do better than give utterance to in the language of 
Dr. Shedd. 

"No single individual, no single age or generation, no single 
nationality, however rich and capacious, shows the whole of man 
and so puts a stop to human development." 

In the spirit of remembrance we arc taught that the unity of 
history requires to be understood from the unit in history; that 


while history as a science or philosophy is not a mere aggregation 
of biographies, yet it is to be understood only in biographies. 
That is the individual underlies the mass, and while the one indi- 
vidual does not constitute the history of the world, yet the history 
of the world depends upon the history of the individual. Let me 
illustrate: the biography of Abraham Lincoln is not a history of 
the United States, but the history of the United States depends 
upon the personal history of Abraham Lincoln. And a history 
that is philosophical notes not only his public activities but the per- 
sonal characteristics that gave to them their distinctive character. 

As age succeeded age, leaving the foot prints of strata upon 
the face of the earth, each building nearer the age of man, so age 
has succeeded age in history, each building for a higher civilization 
to come, each the servant of its succeeding time. 

As the leaves of this autumn day are dying, fading, falling to 
earth in countless drifts, yielding their substance to enrich the sap 
that plays along the veins of next year's foliage, so have individ- 
uals, in ages of human progress, come and gone; each yielding a 
higher life to the age that was to come. The thought of past gen- 
erations is the alluvium soil in which is rooted present advance- 
ment. Thus does the spirit of remembrance teach us that we are 
inheritors of an entailed estate: that we owe a duty to the past, 
that is only met by our response to the demands of human history, 
in laying well the strata of our present age, that it become a step 
in the golden stair of human progress. 

Our work in history then lies before us. We are to take up that 
given us by the generations past, and add to it for the generations 
to come. And this work can not be, as we have seen collective, 
except in results. We are to meet the responsibility of our work 
as individuals. That we may be duly impressed with the great- 
ness of our responsibility, I call your attention to some of the 
particulars of our work. 

"Our Work in History" comprehends a right relation to Ag- 
riculture. The generations past have found their agricultural re- 
lations, fundamental in their history, and so will every generation 
yet to come. In its productions, land supplies the physical basis 
for history, in the support of life; while the question of its owner- 
ship has provided the basis of the world's political history, and 
deluged its soil with blood. Patriotism is not a feeling that con- 
trols the minds of men, leading them to die for a theory; but it is 


b %b4 5 


connected with a patria. There must be a land, studded on its 
hills, in its vales, and across its plains with homes, back of a piece 
of shot-riddled and wind whipped bunting, before men will fol- 
low it to death, and willingly bathe its folds in their heart's blood. 
The history of a nation must find its basis in land; and that history 
will find its principal elements, yes, even the very warp of its web, 
to be the history of its agriculture. 

We are to study our work, as individuals, in history; but we 
shall partly, and very imperfectly, recognize our obligations as 
makers of history, if we do not recognize and respond to our re- 
lations to agriculture. And when we speak of agriculture w T e 
mean all that the tillage of land implies, reaching from its owner- 
ship, through its stock covered pastures clown to its cultivated soils; 
remembering that w r e do not live unto ourselves, but in view of 
the past and for the future. In fact our work in history to-day, if 
we are farmers of God's wide acres, is the work of stewards — 
given a trust by the generations gone, to deliver to the generations 
yet to come. And in view of this fact it is part of our work in 
history to preserve a productive soil. For the farmer of to-day to 
require at the hands of the soil its greatest power of production, 
and to garner in its wealth, until the soil is weakened and the 
coming generation is left a lean and sterile patrimony, for the 
farmer to do this, I say, is for him to hold the attitude of a robber 
toward the generations yet to come. The man that stands next the 
soil, stands next the future prosperity of his country; and those to 
whom he is to bequeath his position may rightfully demand that it 
be given them in its richest productiveness, that they may in turn 
stand the guardians of a nation's strength; and that it may not 
fall upon them to fail in their relation because of a sterile soil. 
The farmer guilty of overworking and undernourishing the soil is 
guilty of — let me coin a word to express the crime — agricide. 

And this is no small crime. True there are no legal sanctions 
attached to the breaking of the natural law that demands a proper 
treatment of the soil, but there are certain future, and often pres- 
ent results that show the magnitude of the crime of agricide, and 
that should impress its dishonoring, and truly criminal character. 
To meet this demand, and to avoid this crime, the farmer must 
look to enriching * * * draining 
and the future rainfall as related to the present cutting away of the 
forests. * * * 

Again it is a part of our work in histdry to see to it that our 


hills, and valleys, and our broad prairies are the grazing places for 
the best stock. * * ..* The time should come when the 
poor man's cow is Short-horn, Holstein, Alderney, or Jersey, and 
even the preacher's horse well bred in bone and muscle, and swift 
in the service of the Lord. It is our duty as agriculturists to 
hasten the day when every man may have his stock of the best. 
* * Again it is a part of our work in history to secure 
proper land relations. We are in our childhood yet as a nation, and 
now if ever is the time to make such agrarian relations as shall 
stand the tests of the future, and widely differ from the relations of 
the past. Now is the time for us to say that there shall be great 
landed estates, parceled out in rented farms to the deterioration of 
American citizenship, by the introduction of the aristocratic, we 
will perhaps be forced to say feudal element; or it is time for us to 
see to it that there are laws governing the control of land that shall 
save, coining generations, and the State, from the dangerous control 
of landed proprietors. * * Again our work in history 

as agriculturists, is to form a science and to develop in the farmer 
of the future a special scientist. * * * That tiller of the 
soil will but half live, and live that half ill, who does not recog- 
nize his importance as the maker of history; and who does not 
meet the responsibilities that his position places upon him. 

Our work in history farther comprehends certain duties as cit- 
izens. Passing from the relations we hold to the soil, and which 
are fundamental, we are naturally led to consider those relations 
that have grown, in their complex form, from the ownership of 
land — political relations. One of the glorious things about our 
land, and one of the dangerous things as well, is the fact that every 
male of twenty-one years, having a sound mind, be" he rich or poor, 
white or black, learned or unlearned, is a political factor. This 
fact, studied in its relations and seen in its far-reaching significance, 
must impress us deeply with the magnitude of our responsibilities 
as frame r a of history; and especially the history of our nation. 
It reveals to us that one important duty in our present work is the 
development of the best federal economy, and the instruction of 
the rising generation in its laws, and in their privileges and duties 
under them. * * * 

There is especial need that the ballot be understood. When 
men look upon it as a leverage power, to be used in the promotion 
of selfish ends, they do not understand it. And when men put it 
upon the market as a tiling of barter, they are dangerous, and 


should be outcasts from citizenship. A man that is no more a man 
than to sell his vote, is not enough of a man to make a citizen out 
of; and if his imbecility or concentrated deviltry is made -manifest, 
he ought to be disfranchised. 

It is every man's privilege to vote as he will for principles, 
but there is no constitutional privilege of voting as a man pleases 
for pay. * * * 

Our work in history involves a work for education. It is by 
this that we may hope, in some measure at least, to remedy the 
defects in citizenship, and by it will each one become prepared for 
doing his work at its best. In a republic like ours, too much in 
its social and political relations, depends upon trained minds and 
souls broadened by culture, for education to be for a moment, lost 
sight of. And because of what it is in its relation to the present 
and future, it is encumbent upon us as stewards of to-day, to in- 
sure the to-morrow, by training our populace in free, state schools. 

There is no education so good, so broad, so thoroughly a prep- 
aration for the highest citizenship, as a christian education; yet a 
so-called christian education may be narrow, bigoted, ecclesiastical, 
and thus become fit training for a limited or absolute monarchy, 
but be as a viper's sting to true republicanism. Hence the State 
must be the educator, and her schools free to the masses. * * 

There must be developed — and it is ours to develop it — a truer 
idea of what education is, and to what end it reaches. The idea 
that education is a stepping-stone to material prosperity, while true, 
is false as a principle of action. And false because it defeats the 
end sought after in education. In training the mind under this 
idea there is the casting aside of whatever does not tend directly 
to increase the value of the student's knowledge measured by what 
it is worth in the market of toil. Under this idea a man is edu_ 
cated who can read the sounds that the electric flash gives forth 
from his instrument, though he may with difficulty spell out the 
thoughts of an author from the printed page. And the man who 
can make entries, post books, and render trial balances, is now the 
graduate of a university, and an educated man; while the boy with 
the rudiments taught in a district school, and a diploma for two 
years of stumbling progress in the theory of medicine takes his 
place beside the educated men of the community, and is counted 
much the superior of him who has given four years beyond his 


matriculation in laying a broad character as the foundation for 
the study of his special science. I wish to express just here my 
firm belief in the growing necessity for a broad development and 
culture to precede the study of Special lines. For the very reason 
that we are coming more and more to be specialists, there is an 
increased demand for trained and cultured minds, back of the nar- 
rowed sphere of life and thought. Education must be valued ac- 
cording to its eternal relations. Truth cannot die, elements never 
change, and education includes both. * * * * Of 

our work in history I mark one more feature. It is our duty to 
defend and to make more sacred the home. Here the citizen is 
born. Here the training of his mind begins, and about this cluster 
the thousand influences that are woven into the web of character 
to become its groundwork in all the woven variety of later years. 
It is the home indeed that lies fundamental to the landed, political 
and social relations of our nation, and may well come as the climax 
in the study of work in history. * * * * We owe 
it to the future to render in every possible way aid in developing 
a love for home life. * * * In teaching the art 

of rendering these centers of influence more and more refining. 
****** * * * * *•* 

In giving the home its true position as an educator, and seeking 
to give to every family a true home. * * * * 

It devolves upon us, in view of what the home is to protect 
it for the future in our present legislation. In the idea of free 
love, and easy marriage relations, where the tie is one of wish, 
and to be broken at desire, the home finds the crushing folds of 
the boa. 

If we are to give a fair inheritance to the future and meet the 
responsibilities of our work to-day, it is for us to make marriage 
more binding than names on a dancing card. The young woman 
who holds marriage as an experiment to be ended as soon as found 
unpleasanl or not as expected, is as dangerous to society as the 
man who sells his vote and thus bargains away his manhood. * 

Easy divorce laws, who can measure, in their 
weakening effecl upon the moral tone of the future and the total 
wreck of the home. * * It is ours to teach 

the home as central in religion and reform. 

Religion is powerful in its control proportionate to its growth 
in the home. Reform has failed in pro- 


portion as it has drifted from the home, and succeeded in propor- 
tion to its making the home central in its efforts. To illustrate let 
me call your attention to the temperance reform in our land. 

Thousands signed the pledge and thousands broke it again. 
Could there have been a larger number permanently reclaimed? 
I believe so, if the home had been made central. Instead of form- 
ing clubs to take the evenings of fathers, there should have been 
an effort at making a new sphere for their pleasure in the home 
that their habits had rendered unattractive and too often entirely 
ruined. * * * * 

Our work in history is great; but it presents a great reward, 
and there should come to our hearts no desire more welcome or 
powerful than the desire to fill our places well in the march of 
ages that are telling the story of Divine Purpose and writing the 
history of the Divine Will. 


An Address delivered before the Fir elands Historical So- 
ciety at the Quarterly Meeting held in Pern, 
October 8th, 1884. 


Mr. President, Members of the Firelands Association, dear 
friends, old and new: 

Yonder visible horizon bounds a spot of earth dearer to me than 
all the world besides. It defines the place of my birth, the scenes of 
my childhood and the theatre of ray early manhood life. Here my 
eyes beheld for the first time as they did for the last time the face 
of my mother and my father. Here I prattled in babyhood, heard 
my first lullaby, was taught my first prayer, and exulted and wept 
in childhoods joys and griefs. Up and down these hills my boy- 
hood feet have run on willing and unwilling errands'; over those 
fields and meadows chased the butterfly; through those now sparse 
woods, then standing " massive dark and tall," foraged for nuts, or 
chased the drumming pheasant jnst eluding my grasp, and flying 
before me like a phantom; along the banks of that winding little 
stream ranged with pin-fish-hook, learning patience, waiting for a 
bite by some foolish minnow, or doming shoos and stockings waded 
with extatic glee in its shallows, or took my first swimming lessons 
in its deeper pools, or in times of floods, stood in awe upon its 
hanks and watched its foaming torrents rushing onward I knew 
not whither. Upon the same site but within far humbler walls than 


enclose yonder school edifice, my early school days were spent, and 
under the molding touch of such teachers as a Watrous, a Hollo- 
way, a Barber, influences were received that shaped the aspirations 
and attainments of all my later years. In yonder church I received 
my christening, there first searched the scriptures under Sabbath 
school instruction, there first heard the Gospel preached, and for 
years after, assisted in public praise singing in its choir. Yonder 
cemetery holds the sacred dust of my mother, my father, and my 
infant sister whom I never saw, my grand-parents and many near 
of kin, and many near of heart. Oh, "the breathless silence" of 
those hallowed graves. 

In the little office at the foot of the hill I took my first lessons 
in medicine, wielding the pestle and making the old iron mortar 
ring responsive to fancy's dream. After attaining my doctorate 
degree, over yonder western hills, Troy-ward I rode on horseback 
to make my first professional visit. How vividly I remember it! 
The brand new saddle bags, filled like an arsenal with the armament 
of those days of heroic physic, I was too diffident to carry, and 
persuaded my father who followed me to bear them in his buggy 
out of the village, and I would not take them to my saddle till 
well out of sight of the curious crowd who were eager to see the 
young doctor's first professional venture. 

There is one memory more I cannot withhold 

" Oh, it was here that love his gifts bestowed, 

On youth's wild age! 
Gladly once more I seek my youth's abode 

In pilgrimage. * 

Dreams of my youthful days! I'd freely give, 

Ere my life's close, 
All the dull days I'm destined yet to live, 

For one of those." 

But it is not of my own personal experience and reminiscences 
that I am here to speak, it is rather those of The Pioneer Physician. 

Language conveys one meaning to-day and another to-morrow. 

Standards change and we change with them. Poineer life 
when these Firelands were first opened involved vastly different 
conditions from those of the pioneer life of to-day. 

Now the railroad goes before the pioneer or immediately fol- 
lows in his wake; the great forests that with their giant trunks and 
thousand arms shook defiance at his coming, now command a pre- 
mium, and the Standard Oil Company, whose painted barrels are 
seen rolling in every mart of the civilized world, or some lumber 
syndicate thrust in its steam saws and switches and the forests are 


cleared as by magic; enginery with its measureless might and 
endless versatility supplants his heavy toil; his home is built of 
sawed and polished lumber, roofed with/pine or slate and furnished 
with casemented and glazed windows, paneled doors, plastered and 
decorated walls, carpeted floors, mattressed beds and easy chairs. 

Not many miles away in the nearest larger settlement, gracious 
Uncle Sam, by rail or star route, opens daily his inviolate bag filled 
with semi-weekly or daily news from around the whole earth; tele- 
graph wires stretch not far a way, or hum across his farm, putting 
him, with slight expense of time or money, in instantaneous com- 
munication with the great world he seemed to leave behind him; 
astral lamps light, and stoves or furnaces make warm his cheery 
home; and missionary enterprise through the unwearying colpor- 
ter covers his table with religious literature, founds a church and 
opens a school readily accessible to his household. How changed 
from the pioneer life a£ the opening of these Firelands! Then the 
pioneer choosing out some least heavily wooded spot on the land 
of his selection, his family in the meantime keeping house in his 
canvas covered wagon, reared, oftener than otherwise, with unaided 
hands his cabin home. Its walls constructed with hewed logs and 
chinked witli mud, its floors the bare earth, or split logs, its roof 
slabs of bark or split oaken shingles, its chimney built with sticks 
and limeless mortar, its bedsteads were bunks, its chairs stools, its 
Hie place jambless and hung with a crane, its stairway a slatted 
ladder, its windows without glass, its doors without flute or panels, 
its only light at night the.tallow dip or candle or the flickering fire 
light. Over his well, dug and stoned up by his own hands, on a 
high crutch be poised a sapling as a well sweep and lever on which 
to hang his rude oaken bucket, and with which to dip out of the 
punning rivers beneath, draughts refreshing to his household and 
his cattle. As soon as his family were sheltered within this rude 
domicile, his ringing axe was heard felling the mighty forest 
around him; ami he had nothing else with which to cut its fallen 
trunks asunder; nothing but his oxen, chain and hand-spike to log- 
roll ami pile them; nothing but fire, slow smouldering fire, with 
which to remove them, slow smouldering fire that would fill the 
atmosphere for miles around with the odors of distilling wood and 
with a smoky haze like that of Indian summer. When at last a 
few aores thus had been laboriously cleared up, his hand had to 
Intl. I the ph»\\ slowly tearing its way among strong roots and 
around green stumps, to make the new ground fallow for his sow- 


ing or his planting. In the meantime his cabin home was a hive 
of industry, busy hands preparing the needed meal, the restful bed, 
the cheery fire, and, with these duties done, making the cabin 
hum with the whirl of the spinning wheel and reel. While his 
crops were growing he hunted for^game with which to satisfy the 
hunger of his family, or stood guard against rapine and murder by 
a treacherous Indian foe, or joined his fellow pioneers, located 
miles away, in cutting paths and roadways from one clearing to 
another, constructing rude bridges over the smaller streams or 
tracing out the fordable places in the larger. When increased in 
numbers sufficient to constitute a settlement, these pioneers joined 
hands and reared a common log cabin, which they made serve as a 
school house for their children and as a church for their families. 
To reach the nearest point where mails were delivered, they had. 
to travel great distances, and then receive tidings from the busy 
world they had left behind, only once in ten, twenty or thirty days. 
O the bravery and patience of those hardy pioneer men and fathers, 
in so grappling by their unaided arms and hands with the mighty 
forces of unsubdued nature, and struggling, in the face of dire 
hardships, danger and despair, to found and maintain Christian 
homes for their families, and a Christian civilization for the genera- 
tions that should follow them! Oh, the heroism and forbearance 
of those noble pioneer wives and mothers in so patiently bearing 
up against privation and loneliness, desolation and the surrendered 
opportunities of their former and far away homes of comfort and 
ease; carrying and giving birth to children in penury and pangs, 
unrelieved by the ministry of neighborly hands, or professional 
skill, or the sympathies of kindred hearts; nursing and training 
them up through babyhood and childhood in the midst of sacrifice, 
suffering and peril; often witnessing, in grief and pity, one and 
another of thetr precious household stricken with accident, or 
languishing in fever, with few or no relieving comforts; and often 
mourning in sorrow over those they could not save and whom they 
must lay away in lonely graves! Nothing could have upheld them 
but a Divine inspiration; nothing but the Grace of God, the same 
Divine grace that upheld our Pilgrim Fathers in their grand and 
historic struggle for freedom to worship God. Though thus shut 
out from the great world, with onh infrequent communication 
with each other on account of the distances and the impassable 
roads that separated them, with lew comforts, few books, and 
oftener than otherwise with none but the Bible, the cabin homes 


of those days were the nurseries of splendid physical manhood 
and womanhood, the sturdy virtues of economy and industry, tem- 
perance and virtue, Christian faith and patience, love of home and 
family, love of state and country, whose glorious fruitage has been 
reserved for our eyes to behold^md our hearts to enjoy — these Fire- 
lands, then avast and desolate wilderness, now a veritable garden 
of the Lord, and " blossoming as the rose." 

Hardy and prudent as those pioneers were, accidents would 
befall them; sunlight and air let in upon the newly opened earth 
vivified germs, hitherto latent, and filled the air with malarial and 
other poisons, and sickness came down upon them " like a wolf 
upon the fold." A physician therefore was to them an absolute 
necessity. The exegencies, however, demanded that this physician 
should possess special qualifications. He must needs have great 
physical strength and endurance, large and generous sympathies, 
abounding grace of patience and forbearance, and an universal 
medical knowledge and art. He must travel long distances, not in 
a buggy or carriage, or on horseback even, but often afoot, along 
unfrequented paths, unbroken roads, over bridgeless streams, 
through tangle-wood thickets, around bogs and swamps, not by day 
alone but by night, not in fair weather alone but in foul, to find 
the cabin or house of suffering, and in presence of the wounded 
or sick must be prepared for the emergency — to set a broken bone, 
reduce a dislocated joint, amputate a shattered limb, trephine a 
broken skull, treat a fever or an inflammation, or wait upon woman 
in the distresses of child bearing. He would be gone often a 
whole day or more to make one visit and return. He not only had 
to bestow skill and medicine, but counsel and sympathy, solace, 
and not only these, but to do nursing duties in the thousand and 
one undefinable things so needful to the sick and suffering, and 
even more, to act as priest and confessor. When summoned on 
account of severe sickness or accident across these vast distances, 
how anxiously was watched his coming; how welcome his ap_ 
proaching footsteps, or the tread of his horse's hoofs as he drew 
near; how reverent the gladness of his long looked for presence; 
how like a benediction his smile of assured safety and like an 
oracle his promise of relief. The tea kettle was kept singing on 
the crane against his coming; the humble board was spread with 
the best the meagre larder could afford; and "pot a prince in all 
the proud old world beyond the deep" was ever given a more hearty 
Or loving hospitality. 


By virtue of his superior education he became, in the nature 
of things, a kind of oracle of information, a teacher of the people, 
both old and young; and, as the settlements extended and popula- 
tion increased he became more and more eonspieuous in promoting 
education, worthy citizenship and the general weal. Performing 
these long and difficult journeys to and from the sick, often when 
already wearied to near exhaustion and overborne by exposure, 
anxiety and want of sleep, what wonder he could so long endure, 
so long undergo this tax of body, this tension of mind, this un- 
ceasing appeal to his heart! What wonder he was not more often 
stricken with sickness, or sooner broken down, or sooner laid in 
final rest. His remuneration was at best meagre indeed, and 
rarely in money from even the better-to-do, but chiefly in the pro- 
ducts of the few arable acres owned by the creditor. 

The pioneer physician then had, in the nature of things, to be 
poor; for had he discriminated against the needy, had he refused 
his attention and skill, or time and strength, or help and sympathy 
to the poor in their extremity of sickness, that he might live in 
ease or become rich, he had been unworthy of his high mission 
and had well deserved the execration of earth and heaven. Be- 
cause thus limited in his resources, he could do little more for his 
family than shelter them with a home, clothe, feed and educate 
them; he could neither endow them with lands or estates while he 
lived, nor entail upon them rich heritages when he died. 

In this brief sketch of the life of the pioneer physician, I have 
drawn no fancy picture; it has all been gathered out of the ex- 
periences of him whose name I bear, who was one of these pioneers, 
and a brief outline of whose life I will, by your gracious patience, 
now lay before you. 

Dr. Moses Chapin Sanders was born in Milford, Worcester 
County, Mass., on the 27th of May, 1789. Having received what 
was considered at that time a good English education, together 
with some knowledge of the construction of the Latin and Greek 
languages, he for a time taught in an academy, and while yet a 
youth removed with his father's family to Saratoga County, New 
York, where he studied medicine. He attended medical Lectures 
in the University of New York City and obtained therefrom his 
doctorate degree, at the time Dr. Valentine Mott was in liis prime, 
as teacher and surgeon. He began the practice of his profession 
in Galway, and from thence, accompanied by his father, mother 
and younger brother, he removed in the spring of 1818, to Peru, 


Huron County, Ohio, where, with the exception of three years 
spent in Norwalk, Ohio, he passed the remainder of his life. This 
whole period of nearly forty years was assiduously devoted to the 
duties of his profession, which were relinquished only when in- 
tirmities prevented continued application. Dr. Sanders was married 
twice, his first wife being Miss Harriet Maria Thompson, who was 
a resident of Galway, and whom he brought with him, bearing in 
her arms an infant daughter, one year of age, their first born, who 
is now Mrs. Olive Isabella Smith, of Napa City, Cal. This wife 
was his companion, support and solace through all his early strug- 
gles and privations. She was tall and beautiful in person, lovely 
in spirit, and too delicately organized long to endure the privations 
and hardships of pioneer life. She died of acute sickness October 
20th, 1829, having lived eleven years in her pioneer home. By her 
Dr. Sanders had three other children: Rhoda B. Sanders, who 
died in infancy, Rev. Wm. D. Sanders, of Jacksonville, 111., and 
Dr. J. C. Sanders, now of Cleveland, Ohio. These were the special 
years of struggle, sacrifice and suffering, in which Dr. Sanders laid 
broad and deep the foundations of his precious fame. These were 
the years when all this now fair heritage of villages and farms, 
cultivated fields and orchards, railroads, bridged rivers and tele- 
graph lines, populous, prosperous and happy, was a vast wilderness, 
only dotted, here and there, miles on miles apart, with log cabins, 
the humble homes of hardy pioneers. It was to the sick in these 
widely scattered cabins he made these long and arduous journeys, 
by day and night, in storm and shine, sometimes on horseback, 
often on foot, marking his way on trees to indicate the path of re- 
turn. It was in these humble homes he healed the sick, relieved 
the suffering, comforted the mourning, instructed the ignorant, and 
cheered the lonely and despairing. It was here he developed his 
great characteristics as a practitioner of medicine: 

a. Exhaustive investigation of disease. 

His thorough course of instruction in the New York school of 
medicine eminently qualified him for this. Upon this thorough 
preparation was kindled an enthusiastic fondness for search and 
inquiry into the nature and import of things. The more obscure 
and profound the subject of his inquiry, the more intense became 
his investigation. He seemed to take delight in the examination 
of obscure and difficult cases of disease, lie became famed in this. 

h. Accuracy of diagnosis, the distinguishing of disease. 

r I nis was a conspicuous power with him, and the logical result 


of his natural fondness for close and careful research. His errors 
in judgment as to the exact character of any given malady were 
strikingly infrequent. 

c. Boldifess and fertility in curative and relieving means. 
He seemed almost exhaustless in resources, and when one 

measure failed him he was swift and ready with another. 

d. Hopefulness in presence of the sick. 

Though recognizing danger when it was far off, lie always in- 
spired assurance and hope, even in the midst of despair. 

e. Sympathy and tenderness. . 

His heart was as tender and fond as his mind was Vigorous 
and intense. This was as conspicuous in his home life and in his 
friendships as in his professional ministry. 

f. Generosity of spirit. 

He never discriminated against the poor, whom he served with 
as much of his time and attention, strength and skill, sympathy 
and help, as with which he served the rich and well-to-do in life. 

These qualities, conspicuously prominent in him, made him 
everywhere respected, loved and honored. When the country be- 
came more settled and populous, and villages sprang up in adjoining 
and distant townships and counties, these qualities attracted atten- 
tion, and his skill was sought after near and far. Fortunately for 
him, but more so for the people, the adjoining counties and some 
of the adjoining towns came at length to be favored by other and 
later pioneer physicians: such men as Dr. Dresbach, of Tiffin; 
Van Scooter, of Manstield; Dr. Tilden, of Sandusky; Drs. Baker 
and Kittridge, of Norwalk; Drs. Fay, Harris and Gallop, of Milan; 
Dr. Caldwell, of Huron; Dr. Campbell, of Fairfield; Dr. Morton, 
of Plymouth. A splendid galaxy of men they were; with each of 
whom Dr. Sanders was in frequent consultation in exigent cases of 
accident or disease. He was adaquate to every emergency; he per- 
formed every operation then known to surgery; and avjis especially 
distinguished in obstetricy. How many of this generation owe to 
him their rescue from the perils of birth, as subsequently, their 
safety in the danger of accident and disease? His reputation in 
later years attracted the attention of the trustees of the Cleveland 
Medical College, the medical department of the Western Reserve 
University, and he was elected Medical Censor in that institution, 
which office he held till his retirement. After Drs. Baker ami 
Kittridge withdrew from active practice, he was urgently invited 
by the citizens of Norwalk to transfer his residence there. With 


great reluctance he did this, and remained there three years; but 
though his practice was made easier, he was dissatisfied and longed 
for his old home, to which, soon as his son, your humble speaker, 
had finished his educational* course and was prepared to take his 
place, he returned, and where he continued to live until his death. 

For his second wife Dr. Sanders married Mrs. Pearly C. Doug- 
las, of Elyria, Ohio, May 25th, 1831. Mrs. Pearly C. Sanders sur- 
vived the doctor a few months over ten years. She was a widow 
with two young daughters. The eldest, Pemelia C, is now Mrs. 
Alvin Brightman, a well known resident in Peru, and the mother 
of three, now adult and married children, also well known and 
greatly respected in this community; the younger, Sarah Jane, 
married Mr. R. L. Chase, of Kenton, Ohio, where she died, leaving 
two daughters, both now living and much esteemed. This wife, 
with her daughters, lifted from Dr. Sanders' home its cloud of 
loneliness and desolation and let in again the light and cheer of 
womanly presence and childhood's grace and gladness. By her, 
only one child was born into the family, a daughter, Elizabeth C, 
who proved to be a divine benediction in the household, and the 
chief minister of helpfulness and comfort in the declining years 
of both mother and father, and who subsequent to her parents 
death, became the second wife of Mr. R. L. Chase before mentioned. 

In his domestic relations, Dr. Sanders was a distinguished ex- 
ample of affection and tenderness. He honored both his wives 
with devoted love and attention, which they requited with all 
womanly helpfulness, inspiration and solace. His home was always 
his chief center of attraction, his anchorage in the storm of care, 
trouble and sorrow, lie was a vigilant defender of its sanctities, 
and ceaseless in promoting its privileges and comforts. He was a 
bountiful provider; and gave to his own the best of his heart and 

He was an ardent promotor of education, common, scientific and 
classical, and gave each of his sons a classical and professional 
culture. He loved books, poetry and music. For many years he 
was the leader in the choir of the Presbyterian Church, in which 
he was for the" later period of his life an active and honored mem- 
ber. Who that ever heard them can ever forget the grand old 
anthems he brained that choir to sing! 

His love of music made his own home musical with songs, 
orchestral harmonies, hymns and anthems. He has often been heard 
singing at night when riding in his carriage, or on horseback, in 


pitch darkness, on his professional visits. He was for many years 
a member of a memorable orchestral quartette, in which he played 
the violoncello. How the memories of those musical days rise like 
a tender haze and magnify as I ponder over them! 

He was fond of nature; he loved the earth, and almost wor- 
shipped the beautiful. The woods were his delight; he never 
traversed them in spring and summer months without coming home 
with his horse or buggy laden with their blossoms or their leaves. 

His little farm and garden which he cultivated, more for 
recreation and pleasure than for profit, were always made to grow 
the earliest vegetables and show the choicest fruits and flowers. 
His hollyhock bed was a thing of rarity and beauty that will never 
fade out of my memory. As he was fond of flowers, so was he 
fond of children, and never seemed happier than when they were 
gathered in merry and sportive groups around him. Vivacious, 
versatile and cheery, he was as delightful in companionship as he 
was warm and true in his friendships. He had unbounded faith 
m his fellow man that made him at different times bear heavy 
financial losses. He not only trusted largely in his professional 
services, as he must needs have done, but his hard earned money, 
without asking or receiving any form of security. This was un- 
business like, and generosity to a fault. As he Avas honorable and 
honest himself, he believed in and relied on the honor and honesty 
of others. This often proved a treacherous trust. He was public 
spirited in a broad sense; ever ready with his time, council and 
means to promote the public good. He was quick in perception, 
vigorous in thought and forcible in action. He had a retentive 
memory; seemed never to forget anything he had ever learned; 
was studious and industrious. When not ill in bed or profession- 
ally employed he was always busy, reading, writing, working in his 
garden or orchard, improving or ornamenting his premises or his 

He was pronounced in his political opinions. "Stumped" it 
through one campaign; was a staunch Whig; an enthusiastic ad- 
mirer of Henry Clay; grieved and did penance at his defeat. 

Though not a politician, he Avas elected to the Legislature and 
served in it as Representative, but for only one term. He was too 
wedded to his profession long to leave it, and never afterward ac- 
cepted any political preferment. 

Apart from many violent but brief sicknesses, he was the sub- 
ject of three serious accidents; one from his horse falling with 


him, wounding and endangering an ankle joint and loot; one from 
the bite of a kitten, which lie was trying to catch as a gift to his 
old pastor, Rev. Mr. Conger, the virus of which bite put his right 
arm, as well as his life, in great jeopardy, and the other from a 
railroad accident, by which he suffered a dislocated shoulder, and 
a nerve shock, from which he never recovered, and which his 
family believed shortened his life a full decade. As the aggregate 
result of all these, with the wear of the hardships and struggles 
and arduous labors of his previous life, he was compelled, though 
not in extreme age, to withdraw from active service in his profes- 
sion. This retirement was here in Peru, where, in his last home 
on the hill, by his characteristic open manner, ardent temperament, 
warm social feelings, intelligence and vigorous common sense, he 
attracted his large circle of admiring and loving friends, to whom 
he was devotedly attached, and whose society, Avith that of his 
beloved wife and daughter, was to him an unceasing satisfaction 
and solace. With his increasing infirmity he enjoyed more and 
more these friendly and loving fellowships. He at length con- 
tracted a cold, from which he sickened, and in little over six weeks' 
time passed out of life. His death occurred May 18th, 1856. 

So passed away a loving husband and father, a friend to the 
poor and needy, a law loving and self sacrificing citizen, a Christian 
gentleman, a pioneer physician, eminent and skillful. He-was be- 
loved and honored while he lived, and his memory, in lustre and 
sweetness, still lingers in and around these old homes, and in the 
hearts of all who ever knew hiuij like a benediction from the skies. 

How much better such a life than one of inglorious indolence 
or case, or one of selfishly gotten opulence and luxury! How much 
better such a legacy than rich estates, or towering shafts of granite, 
or the most costly tablets of marble or bronze! 


Written for the Firelands Historical Society and Head at 

the 29th Annual Meeting, held in Norwalk, 0., 

June 1 7th, 1885. 


The Old Chimney Corner! It is endeared to the heart from 
the earliest recollections. What dreams have been imagined there! 
What stories told! What bright hours passed! It was a place to 
think in, a place to weep in, to laugh in, and much the cosiest place 
in the house to rest in. 

It Avas there where dear old grandmother used to sit at her 
knitting, warming her poor old rheumatic back against the warm 
wall; where grandfather used to fall asleep over some old book; 
where mother used to place her spinning wheel, and father used to 
sit there too and read the weekly newspaper, in the great arm chair. 

It is there where we used to read fairy tales, in our childhood, 
all so snug and warm, while the wind of a winter's night whistled 
without. Our favorite plum cake was never so sweet as when 
eaten there, and the stories we now read by the bright coal fire are 
never half so fascinating as those read in the chimney corner. 

If we Avere sad, we went there to cry. If Ave were merry, Ave 
with our brothers and sisters nestled there to have a right merry 
time. Even puss and the house dog loved the chimney corner. 

Look back at the old house where every room, every nook is 
so full of pleasant recollections — the family sitting room where 
were so many happy meetings; our own chamber, Avith its little 
Avindow " where the sun came -peeping in at morn." But after all, 
the brightest memories cluster about the chimney corner. 

W r e long to be folded in its faithful old bosom again, as Ave 
were in childhood, and have a good cry over all those past happy 
times. It is desolate noAV. The bright faces that clustered there 
of yore will never come back again. The loved Avails (if now left 
standing by the hand of Time) are black and dingy, and the smoke 
from the kitchen lire never makes them warm any more. 

But still memory sets up some of the holiest and most beauti- 
ful statues of her carving in the old chimney corner. 


Delivered at the Quarterly 31eeting of the Firelands His- 
torical Society, held in North Fairfield, Ohio, Oct. 7 , '85. 


Fathers, mothers, friends and patrons of the Firelands His- 
torical Society, in behalf of the citizens of North Fairfield, I ex- 
tend to you a very cordial welcome. 

We welcome you to our homes and to our firesides (for a fire 
to-day is comfortable). If there is anything Ave possess the use 
of which will help lighten your cares, and give you comfort and 
pleasure while you remain with us, speak the word and it shall be 

We welcome you to the rich program that awaits you. The 
speakers who follow me need no words of praise and commenda- 
tion from me. Their names are a guarantee of success. Modesty 
forbears that I should speak praise worthy of the singing, for it is 
home talent; but such as we have we gladly give to thee. 

We feel amply provided to entertain you in all things. If, in 
matters of politics you take delight and are fond of discussing 
the issues of the day and the uncertain probabilities of to-morrow, 
we can entertain you in this direction, for we have in stores and 
upon street corners, representatives of all parties, from the coldest 
of water to the hottest that's made, eager to advise and instruct, 
but not quite ready themselves to be advised and instructed. 

If in matters of religion you are concerned, and you find en- 
joyment in talking of the " Faith, Hope and Charity" of the Gos- 
pel, and "The (treat Salvation," we can certainly entertain you in 


this respect, for we have unbelief and all kinds of belief here — 
indeed, a little of everything under the sun. 

If your chief delight to-day is in historical fact, as your pres- 
ence here on this occasion would indicate, I have only to say, we 
have men in our midst whose memories recall distinctly events of 
nearly a century ago. Like forest oaks that have outlived the 
storms of a century, " ripe and full of years," they stand among 
us to-day monuments of God's mercy and loving kindness, with 
minds like " store houses filled for all," with rich reminiscences of 
bygone years. 

Wife and I have been here two years. Those whom we have 
met have given us royal entertainments many times. On this, the 
eve of our departure from among this people, our testimony is 
similar to that of Peter, James and John, when privileged to be- 
hold the transfiguration of Christ upon Tabor, " Lord, it is good 
for us to be here." I am certain your testimony will be this e'er 
you leave us this day. If fault I had to find with the people of 
North Fairfield, it would be on this line, that the inner man receives 
more than his share. Therefore be not concerned about what "ye 
shall eat or what ye shall drink" while here, " for in due season 
ye shall reap if ye faint not." 

I must confess there have been times since I have been here, 
at gatherings like this, like the hungry disciples who fol- 
lowed the Lord Jesus into the wilderness and were without food 
for three days, I have felt the need of a consolation within, and 
have said to myself " whence should we have so much bread as to 
fill so great a multitude?" I have seen the "seven loaves and few 
little fishes," so to speak, in a basket on the arm or under the 
buggy-seat, and have really been concerned about ends and results, 
but I have seen the multitude of men, women and children eat un- 
til they were filled, and have seen room for more, and there were 
more that twelve basketsfull left. You ask me how it was done? 
I cannot tell you, but if you call it a miracle, this people will per- 
form it again to-day. 

Were I on the program to-day for a sermon, I know of no 
more appropriate text I might select for the occasion than " Come, 
for all things are ready "; or, " Whosoever will may come." 

We welcome you all to the Grange Hall for dinner, but we es- 
pecially welcome the strangers first. 


And the Perpetual Necessity of the Pioneer Spirit. 

An Address delivered before the Fire] finds Historical So- 
ciety at its Quarterly Meeting held in North 
Fairfield, October 7th, 1885. 


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I am sorry that I could not be with you to enjoy the exercises 
of the morning and participate in the social festivities of the re- 
cess. I want to assure you that that which prevented me was some- 
thing always dear to the heart of the pioneers. It was a wedding. 
Unless the traditions are all wrong, weddings held fully as large a 
place in the joys and festivities of the early days as of our own. 
To use a phrase current in our day, "The woods were full of 'em." 

Indeed, had it not been for the weddings of our forefathers 
we should have been a forlorn set here to-day. You will certainly 
excuse me then for my absence, since in performing a marriage ser- 
vice I was doing genuine pioneer work. 

I am very glad to be here this afternoon. 

Though I am not a pioneer in the strict sense of the word, I 
am the son of a pioneer, and of a Western Reserve pioneer. 

The memory of my childhood days seems to take me back 
sometimes almost to the verge of the poineer life. And the tra- 
ditions of the experience of the earh settlers in Northern Ohio 
which have come down to me are so familiar that I seem almost to 
have bad a part in them. 

To such a degree is this true that I am quite in sympathy with 
the memorial spirit which has brought into being such meetings 
as this. 


There comes a time in every man's life when he turns witli 
special interest to the scenes and experiences of his childhood. 

There comes a time in the history of every nation when it 
turns back with eagerness to the events of its birth and the experi- 
ences of its early life. It seeks to recall them, group them in order 
and record them that they may never be forgotten. 

This* country is now passing through an experience which il- 
lustrates this tendency to go back, after the lapse of years, to 
scenes, from which, in their freshness, we were glad to turn away. 

When the war for the Union was over the soldiers stacked 
their arms, put off their uniforms and put on the garments of peace. 

They turned with ardor to the pursuits of peace, and felt like 
bathing themselves in its serene sunshine and were inclined to let 
the scenes of the war pass out of mind as they had passed out of 

But how is it now after the lapse of twenty years? The 
thoughts of the whole nation, soldiers and citizens, north and 
south, are turning back with great eagerness to the events of the 

There is not a campaign, or a plan, or battle, or incident of the 
dark days but possesses for us a fascinating interest. 

It is according to the same law that our communities of this 
generation are turning back with special interest to the days of the 
pioneers with the desire to recall, record and honor the struggles, 
privations and virtues out of which have come these fair and pro- 
ductive farms and this advanced civilization which we now enjoy. 
And I have noticed that there is a strong tendency to give the 
place of honor in our remembrance to the things which the pio- 
neers were most glad to be rid of, that is the hardships of pioneer 

We are inclined to recall with special interest the forests 
that had to be felled,' the roads of ruts and corduroy, the ox-carts 
for pleasure driving, the lonely log houses, with neighbors so far 
away, and the howl of the wolves so near, the toil so hard and 
plentiful and the luxuries so few and costly. 

It is right to recall these things with sympathy and honor. 

There were hardships, many and severe. All honor to the 
spirits who bravely encountered them and endured them, and 
wrought out for their sons and daughters an easier lot, ami in many 
respects a happier condition. 

I am not sure, however, but we are somewhat extravagant in 


the partiality with which we regard the hardships of pioneer life. 
If I mistake not, there were compensations for hardships in the 
early life more rich and abundant than we are apt to think. 

If toil was hard, rest was sweet. Life was simple and cares 
comparatively few. If luxuries were rare, they were thoroughly 
enjoyed. If the nearest neighbor was a mile away, when you 
found him you knew him; you sympathized with each other and 
helped each other. The pioneer days were days of large brother- 
hood. Now-a-days there may be a hundred neighbors within the 
mile and you may not know one of them. Increase of population 
does not always mean a corresponding enlargement of brotherhood. 
I wish it did. If home was rude and room and comforts scant, it 
was home after all, and was loved and prized as such. 

It is doubtful if the home feeling was ever more tender and 
strong than in the days of the poineers. Within a year the widow 
of a pioneer, now past her three score years and ten, who came into 
the Western Reserve in infancy, and who has borne her full share 
of the hardships and privations of the early settlers, said that her 
idea of comfort and pleasure, after all, was the old log house. The 
loom was in the corner and the spinning wheel was beside it. 
There was the ample fireplace and bake-oven. Outside were the 
singing birds, the blooming hollyhocks, sweet williams', pinks and 
roses, always beautiful, but never quite so beautiful as with a cozy 
log house behind them. The patter of little feet and the sound of 
children's voices were sweet music. The luxuries mr£ht be .few, 
but there was comfort, and love, and hope, and life was rich. 

You cannot drive happiness out of a house by building it of 
logs. Neither can you hold it in by walls of stone or marble. It 
is not dependent upon the largeness and abundance of the gifts 
bestowed upon us, but rather upon the grateful heart 

" That tastes the gifts with joy." 

Home, too, in the early days, was home all the year round. It 
was not a dwelling place for a few months, to be exchanged in the 
summer for another by the sea, or by the lake, or on the mountain 
side and for another, perhaps, in the winter, in the Sunny South. 

Increase of wealth and rapid transit have increased the number 
of our lodging places, but it is doubtful if they have multiplied 
in like proportion the sacred ties and endearing associations that 
make the home not only the "dearest spot on earth" but the 
strength of the nation. 

It was not possible, however, that life could long retain the 


simplicity of the early days. The farms soon put on an improved 
appearance and the homes began to accumulate conveniences and 

How interesting were the early ambitions. The change from 
the cart to the wagon, from the ox to the horse was of more thrill- 
ing interest to the lad on the farm than the introduction of the 
steam engine to the traffic of the world. 

The first rag carpet woven with her own hand by the thrifty 
housewife started whisperings of aristocracy in the neighborhood, 
and was laid upon the center of the bare floor with an honest pride, 
richer than the best body Brussels can awaken in the mansion of 

So civilization started out upon its march to its gains, and its 
losses too. 

I am not a pessimist. I believe the world, upon the whole, is 
growing, not worse, but better. 1 believe the golden age of our 
race is not in the past, but in the future. 

What I am saying is simply, that in any age and any phase of 
life, give man liberty, enlightenment and fidelity, and he will find 
rich compensations for his hardships and privations. And the es- 
sential joy and worth of life is not so much affected by changes in 
his surroundings as we are apt to think. 

Our pioneers were not perfect, nor did they hand down to us* 
a perfect condition of society. They had the drone, the profligate, 
the thriftless and the lawless in their day as we have in ours. 
But upon the whole they did their work well. Their difficulties* 
and hardships tended to produce a certain robustness of character 
and sterling qualities of citizenship which honored them, and 
which we cannot afford to lose. As we leave behind the hardships 
and privations of our fathers we should see to it that we do not 
lose their stalwart virtues, their industry, economy, practical wis- 
dom, sturdy patriotism, and undaunted courage, for never were 
these virtues more deeply needed than to-day. 

We cannot go back to the days and conditions of our fathers. 
You cannot take the strong and spreading oak and press it back 
into the sapling. Neither can you press the mighty traffic of our 
day back to the ox-cart and the stage coach, nor the commodious 
and elegant homes of to-day back to the simple comforts of the 
log house. The civilization of to-day, with ist expanded life and 
interests* its vast problems cannot be contracted to the simple is- 
sues and narrow channels of the pioneers. 


We would not have it so, I suppose, if we could. We certainly 
could not if we would. We live and must live here, and now. 
Here lies our work; and I am not willing to admit that the dimcul- 
culties of the pioneers were greater or.eyeh as great as our own. 
We have our forests to fell, mightier than theirs; we have 
problems to solve at which they would have stood aghast. Every 
generation is a pioneer of the generations that are to follow. We 
are pioneers, and we need, in its fullest measure, the true pioneer 
courage, wisdom and valor. 

To be sure, you have received your farms cleared and improved, 
ready to your hand, but it requires the old time vigilance and un- 
relaxing efforts to keep them in order and productiveness. 

The farm that is hallowed by the hardy toil and self-denial of 
the pioneer will cover itself with weeds and put on the garments 
of dilapidation as soon as any other if the spirit and enterprise of 
the pioneer haye departed. 

A few years ago people were saying that the lands of the 
Western Reserve had lost their pristine virtue. They were worn 
out; the crops were growing scant and uncertain. But it was dis- 
covered that all these faithful meadows and plowing fields needed 
was a little thoughtful nurture. So you began underdraining and 
fertilizing your iields, and behold, you are winning from them 
more bountiful harvests than at the beginning. 

If you have been relieved of the task of hewing out the primi- 
tive roads and constructing the first rude bridges, the equally heavy 
task is upon you of building your gravel pikes, your solid culverts 
of stone and your bridges of iron. 

The same spirit of progress that led the fathers on from the 
forest to the first wheat held, from the swamp to the meadow, 
from the blazed track through the woods to the rough roadway, 
is pushing on their sons to all the substantial and magnificent im- 
provements that are demanded for the business and comfort of to- 

As it, is upon the material plain, so upon the moral, political 
and religious. 

The pioneer built his school houses and saw that his children 
were taught, in them. He built his churches and generally attended 
them. He had his Sabbath, for the most, part, quiet and orderly. 
He voted on election day, with little thought of repeaters or 

stullVd ballot boxes. 

He early began his war upon intemperance. 


When the conflict between liberty and oppression, between 
home or country, and whatever might assail their interests, was 
upon him, the pioneer was not wanting. He bravely and promptly 
placed himself in the breach. The issues with him were simple, but 
upon the whole, he met them bravely and laid the foundation well. 

Far more complicated and formidable are the forces which a - 
sail the order and well-being of society to-day. Foreign elements 
have swept into our population like a flood, bringing with them 
foreign habits, and extravagant ideas of this country as a country 
of much liberty and little law. The mighty tides of traffic and 
a desecrative spirit have invaded the Sabbath and threaten to sweep 
away this bulwark of moral purity and order. Intemperance has 
become a mighty and agressive power and with lawless hand is 
seizing the reins of our city governments. Socialistic tendencies 
are threatening the sanctity of marriage, the sacredness of home 
and respect for law and authority. The conflict between capital 
and labor is growing more serious and violent. Bold hands are 
daring to stifle the voice of liberty by tampering with the ballot box. 

While, nominally, liberty and equal rights are the possession 
of every law-abiding citizen of the republic, practically they are 
still denied' to thousands. 

Verily, we are confronted by our forests. Have we the nerve 
and the strength to stand before them and sweep them away? 

Sometimes when I ask that question I feel some misgivings. 
But on the other hand there are many indications of encouragement. 

Again and again when the public conscience has been thorough- 
ly aroused by iniquity or injustice and the public judgment has 
uttered its voice, we have seen bad men and bad laws and practices 
swept away as the wind sweeps the leaves. There is a moral force 
in this nation too often apathetic, sometimes requiring a great deal 
of prodding to stir it into activity, but a power for righteousness 
and a terror to evil doers when once aroused. Thus far our great 
exigencies have brought that force to the front. I believe they 
will continue to do so. 

I remember too that this generation of men and women, the 
generation just now passing life's meridian, have been tried and 
have not been found wanting. Our young men were called to stand 
before a forest, not of oaks, but of bayonets, of serried ranks for- 
midably arrayed against the unity of the nation. And they stood 
therein the storm and shock of battle until by thousands they 


turned their white faces to the sun, until they filled the trenches 
long* and deep with their lifeless bodies. 

They stood there until that mighty forest of rebellion melted 
away and vanished, and they saw the flag floating serene and beau- 
tiful over a country saved, and saved without dishonor. They saw 
the banner of liberty radiant with a meaning which it never had 

When I think of this I say to myself, the spirit of the pioneer 
is not dead. The sons are worthy of the fathers who, in the be- 
ginning, stood and fought for liberty and could not be conquered, 
and of those who, afterward, under the gallant Perry, in the beau- 
tiful bay yonder, compelled the Briton to lower his flag, and gave 
us the free transit of these magnificent lakes. Some forests, my 
friends, have been swept away. Some crooked ways have been 
made straight, some rough places plain. 

The work has not all been done. But it is reason for gratitude 
that we of this generation can stand here with the shadows of the 
brave pioneers, like a cloud of witnesses, about us and not be 
ashamed. We have reason to believe that whatever emergencies 
may come upon us, the men and women, the spirit and the conse- 
crated energy, will be at hand to meet them. 

I have but another thought and then I must give way to my* 
friend here who is better known to you than I, and whose years 
reach back somewhat farther towards the pioneer days than my own. 

The thought is this, when men in any age stand in their places 
and do their work faithfully, they build better than they know. 

When our forefathers laid the foundation of the colonies and 
consecrated them to civil and religious liberty, to education and 
moral order, they builded better than they knew. 

When our Western Reserve pioneers planted the school houses 
and their churches and laid the foundations of this great, pros- 
perous and liberty-loving State, they also builded better than they 

So, if we, standing bravely in our places, faithful to our trust, 
hold fast the virtues of our fathers and do the work of our day, 
we too shall build better than we know. Another hand than ours 
shall give shapeliness, strength and endurance to the structure. 
Our children shall dwell in the noble temple, free and safe and 

Our Hag shall be more and more the admiration of the nations, 
and our nation the guide of the world. 


The following articles are generously contributed to this num- 
ber of The Pioneer by the Hon. Clark Waggoner, of Toledo, 
Ohio, who has, at much expenditure of time and labor, collated a 
great many interesting facts and incidents of the early history of 
the Firclands and contiguous territory. The thanks of the pub- 
lishing committee are hereby extended to Mr. Waggoner for the 


This anniversary was celebrated at Sandusky in J 822, with a 
National Salute and a " procession of ladies and gentleman under 
the direction of Capt. William Hull, escorted by a company of 
volunteers, commanded by Ensign Callenway, to a grove about 100 
rods from the village "; where the declaration was read by Dr. Geo. 
Anderson, and an oration delivered by Eleutheros Cooke. A din- 
ner prepared by Cyrus W. Marsh, was served, at which Lyman 
Farwcll presided, with Moors Farwell as Vice President. Twenty- 
four regular toasts were presented, including this: " Sandusky 
Bay — Tfiough slandered and aspersed, truth will prevail. ' Flow 
on, thou fair water ! ' " 

The day was also commemorated at New Haven in substan- 
tially the same manner. Samuel Spencer presided, with Moses S. 
Beach as Vice President. Col. Samuel Powers was marshal, and 
Lieut. W. B. Matthewson commanded a company of volunteers. 
James Mclntyre was the reader; Rev. Lot B. Sullivan preached a 


discourse from 1st Kings, ii:12. A dinner was served in a grove 
near Capt. James Kinney's, when toasts were presented, including 
the following: " The. Huron Exporting Company — May she ever 
be favored with judicious trustees and faithful factors." 

At Oxford, also, the day was celebrated. The citizens gath 
ered at the house of Stephen Crippen, where a procession was 
formed, and escorted by a company under Capt. Alaby, marched to 
a bowery, where the Declaration was read by Eliphalet Topping, 
and a dinner eaten, Capt. Seth Harrington presiding, assisted by 
Capt. Samuel Magill. Toasts were read. 

The Fourth of July, 1823, was commemorated at the house of 
James Webber, in Venice, with a procession; the reading of the 
Declaration by Charles L. Boalt; an oration by Major Frederick, 
Falley; and a dinner, at which Dr. George Anderson, of Sandusky, 
presided, assisted by Abram B. Youngs, and toasts were presented. 


In 1815, under the heading, " Improve the Golden Opportun- 
ity, 11 Almon Ruggles and Nathaniel Ledyard advertised for sale 
lands in the town of New London, Huron County, "in the Fire- 
land tract, 11 the first 20 families applying to have " 50 acres each 
given them, 11 and to pay $1.00 per acre for what they might wish 
in addition, payable in five years. Mills were to be erected by the 
proprietors of the land " as soon as convenient. 11 The " land, water 
and climate were excellent and healthful.' 1 The year 1815 did not 
close without a negative to the last claim here made, which 
those concerned never forgot, since it was a season of great suffer- 
ing to the settlers from sickness, and especially fever and ague. 

The Reflector of May 20, 1832, had a communication from 

Huron, signed "L /'setting forth the trade, advantages and 

prospects of that town. It stated that since the steamboat Sheldon 
Tin inpsoii was built there in 18:50, the following schooners had 
been constructed and fitted out, to wit: The Marengo, 105 tons, in 
June, 18:5!; the Austerlitz, 131 tons, April, 1832, built by Capt. 
Fairbanks Church for Oliver Newberry, Detroit; and the Prince 
Eugene, lot tons, May, 1832, by Capt. Parsons, for Tower Jackson, 
of Huron; the Buffalo, 101 tons, May, 1832; and a now schooner 


then on the stocks; the latter two by Capt. Church for Standarl & 
Hamilton, of Milan. The above named vessels, together with the 
Lady of the Lakes, the Louisa Jenkins, the Cincinnati, the Mary 
of Milan, the Eclipse, and others were owned at Huron and Milan, 
and employed in exporting produce to Detroit and the Upper Lakes, 
as well as to Buffalo and Oswego. 

Huron dated as a lake port from LS24, at which time wagons 
frequently were driven across the mouth of the river on a sand bar, 
which caused the water to set back over the low lands adjoining, 
inducing much disease. The government had so improved the har- 
bor as to make it "one of the best and safest on the Lake," by 
extending its piers eighty rods into the lake. The merchants of 
Milan and Huron "had gone into competition with those of Sandusky 
in vending salt and purchasing produce, which had reduced the 
price of the former and advanced the latter to unreasonable rates." 

The writer stated that "the town of Huron, in a great measure, 
owes its flattering prospects to the enterprising citizens of Milan, 
through whose influence and efforts appropriations were obtained 
for the harbor." A daily line of stages had recently been estab- 
lished, running through Milan, Norwalk, and Mt. Vernon to Colum- 
bus. A daily line of steamboats between Buffalo and Detroit, 
called at Huron on both their upward and downward passages. 


The following port list of Huron for the week ending May 
2G, 18;J2, as given in the Reflector, furnishes the names of many of 
the crafts and their commanders then doing business on the lake, 
to wit: Steamboats — Enterprise, Capt. Miles; Sheldon Thompson, 
Capt. Augustus Walker; Superior, Capt. Pease; Ohio, Capt. Morris 
Tyler; Henry Clay, Capt. Norton; Niagara, Capt. Stanard. 
Schooners — Mary of Milan, Capt. Phillips; Conneaut Packet, Capt. 
Shook; Lady of the Lakes, Capt. John Shook; Bolivar, Smith; 
Traveller, Fuller; Buffalo, Stiles; Grampus, Ackerson; Sir Henry, 
Ely; Eclipse, Nelson; Louisa Jenkins, Case. Sloop — L. Judson, 
Capt. McGee. 


An organization bearing such name existed in L827, having for 
its chief object the handling of the traffic of the producers, with- 
out the intervention of "middlemen." Its operations were eon- 


ducted by three directors, chosen annually, whose duty it was to 
provide places for the storage of the property of the members of 
the Company; to receive and receipt for the same; forward it to 
market; make returns to the owners; make exchanges of property 
as desired by members; to appoint agents abroad for the manage- 
ment of the business, &c. Storage was to be provided from De- 
cember 1st to May 1st. Ono provision was as follows; " No mem- 
ber shall be allowed to send niDre or a less quantity than 25 bushels 
of grain, one barrel of flour, pork, baef, &i.; 50 pounds in kegs, 
boxes, &c, and no barrels, boxes, bags, &c, shall be sent without 
the owner's name being marked on them, sufficient to stand against 
weatherand common usage, and each individual shall bear the loss 
of his own property sent, if it is not the agent's fault, and share 
the gain by paying his share of the expenses." 

The directors were paid 75 cents a day while actually em- 
ployed. It was provided that " any member who should speculate 
upon the Company's property should forfeit his membership." 

December 1st, 1827, Philo Clark, Jared Hine and Jeremiah 
Van Benschooter, directors, gave notice that the Company was 
ready to receive the produce of members, the places of deposit 
being with Philo Clark, in Vermillion, and Jeremiah Van Ben- 
schooter, in Huron, on the Huron river, a short distance above its 


The first issue of the Norwalk Reporter contained just five 
advertisements, to-wit: Land for Sale, Timothy Baker; Post Office 
Letter List, Piatt Benedict, P. M.; Stray Horse, Jos. C. Curtis; 
Wagon and Chair Making, C. II. Gallup; a notice as to State Laws, 
David Gibbs, County Clerk. Beside these, was nearly a page of 
prospectuses of eastern papers. 

April 14, 1827, dissolution notice of Henry Rider and James 
Minshell, tailors at Norwalk; Mr. Minshcll continuing the business. 

II. G. Morse, Sheriff, published sale of property. John Miller 
was a Deputy. 

May 1st, 1827, professional card of Dr. W. W. Nugent, Nor- 
walk, had on hand a supply of "Kine Pock Matter" for vaccination. 

C. P. Bronson openjd a French school at Norwalk, June 11, 
1827; Miss Bostwick, as Assistant, instructed in embroidery, 
painting, &c. 

Joseph Otis, Berlin, advertised a mare taken up May, 1827, 


Ruth B. and Devade Edna Zerick, Milliners, Norwalk, May 

W. H. Hunter, Attorney, Norwalk, May, 1827. 

June 8, 1827, Norwalk Hotel, A. W. Howe, proprietor. 

June 1, 1827, New Goods, Norwalk, John V. Vredenburgh. 

Chas. L. Curtiss, Gun Smith, Norwalk, June, 1827. 

September 4, 1827, Seth Jennings wanted "a Boy from 14 to 
17 years of age, to serve as an apprentice to the Boot and Shoe- 
making business." Mr. Jennings subsequently removed to Milan, 
where he died. 

Hiram Bailey, House Painter, Norwalk, advertised June, 1827- 

October, 1, 1827, M. C. Sanders, P. M., the following list of 
letters in the Peru Post Office: Lewis Ashley, Ira Bronson, John 
Fillmore, Prince Haskell, Charlotte Sherwood, Timothy Taylor, 
David Williams. 

October 1, 1827, John W. Johnston, P. M., advertised list of 
letters in New Haven P. O., to-wit: Jonas Ashley, Susanna Ault, 
Moses Beach, James Clemmons, Almiralves, Thos. Tindall, Simeon 
Cain, Christian Culp, David Conklin, John Dimnett, Jemima Kel- 
logg, Ezekiel Brooks, Secretary New Haven Lodge; Nathan Shin- 

October 15, 1827, Moses Kimball, Lands for sale at public auc- 
tion, situated in Milan and Berlin Townships. 

October 18, 1827, Morse & Latimer, New Goods at Red Store, 

November 10, 1827, John Fuller, Berlin, Administrator estate 
of Jeduthan Cobb. 

December 1, 1827, Wm. Gallup, Administrator of Caleb H. 
Gallup, Norwalk. 

December 14, 1827, O. S. Baker, Norwalk, wanted Journey- 
men Blacksmiths. 

December 17, 1827, S. R. Barnes, Aministrator estate John R. 
Bray, Wakeman; Benj. Beckwith, Administrator of Jos. Spring- 
stead, Norwalk; Sarah Daniels, Administratrix estate of Ralph 
Daniels, Milan. 

January 1, 1828, Peru Brewery, Wm. Taggart, Peru. 

February 21, 1828, a Mr. Senter delivered "at the Assembly 
Room of A. W. Howe," in Norwalk, a lecture " vindicating the 
Privileges and Rights of the Females of our country, to the Re- 
finements of Learning and Letters." At the same time, he exhib- 
ited " Botanical and Landscape Paintings," including one of St. 


Helena, and another, " the Burning of the Widows in India on the 
Funeral Pile." Admittance, 25 cents — " to commence at early- 

March 13, 1827, Ebenezer Andrews and Ozias Long, adminis- 
trators estate of Dr. David Harkness, advertised a lot on the Pub- 
lic Square in Milan. 

May 23, 1828, Miss T. E. Norton, Norwalk, school for instruct- 
ing young ladies in the " Art of Working Lace on Frames, and the 
16 different stitches of the most fashionable kinds, in the short 
time of twelve days, at the low price of $1 per scholar." 

John Whyler started a tin shop at Norwalk, June 28, 1828. 

Partnership of Dr. W. W. Nugent and T. S. Carroll dissolved , 
December 5, 1828. 

December 9, 1828, William Spears, Milan, cattle taken up. 

January 30, 1829, Mrs. Jennings. Norwalk, opened boarding 

January 5, 1829, M. Callenway "retook his tavern stand, sign 
of Gen. Andrew Jackson, Norwalk, lately accepted by Charles 

January 14, 1829, Geo. H. Gibbs, Milan, notice to debtors. 

March, 1829, Obadiah Jenney opened the Norwalk Hotel, and 
advertised for boarders. 

In March, 1829, Robert Brown, barber, gave notice that he 
would " attend at the hotels of O. Jenney and M. Callenway, in 
Norwalk, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, to accommodate the cit- 
izens of the village, and others who might call on him, in the or- 
dinary branches of his business." He also "attended to Boot-and 
Shoe Blacking." The " residue of his time he was at Milan." 

May, 1829, Wm. Gallup, Norwalk, Furniture and Windsor 

June, 1829, Nathan Jenkins & Co., stores at Milan and Huron. 

July, 1829, Miss P. Underbill, Milliner, Norwalk. 

July, 1829, Dr. W T m. M. Ladd, Physician and Surgeon, Green- 

September, 1829, Geo. Kellogg, administrator estate of Esther 

November 26, 1829, Daniel Brightman, Bronson, Stray Cow. 

January 19, 1830, Moses Kimball, County Auditor, advertised 
for proposals for erecting a building for the County Officers. 


Legendary Account of the First Camp Meeting Held Upon 

tiie Firelands. 


Written for the Norwalk Chronicle. 
The beautiful forests of the Firelands when first visited by 
the adventurous footsteps of the pioneers, presented a scene of 
native wildness such as is witnessed by all those who penetrate 
into the deep recesses of a vast wilderness. The forest trees were 
adorned with a foliage of deep rich green and the brilliant tints 
of the flowers nourished into full maturity of size and beauty by 
the fertility of soil attracted the admiration of the early traveler. 
The streams all tending toward one great estuary swept through 
an almost boundless extent of country. The wild animals were 
numerous. The elk and the deer roamed in herds, Here lurked 
the solitary panther, the lion of our region, and here prowled the 
savage wolf. The nutritious fruits and the juicy buds of the forest 
reared the indolent bear to a large size. Such were the discoveries 
of the first adventurers. There were persons of a character essen- 
tially peaceful who at an early period braved the dangers and 
privations of this unsettled region, stimulated by a noble and self- 
denying sense of duty. While the tomahawk and fire-brand were 
still busy; when to travel from one settlement to another required 
the courage and hardihood of the hunter; the ministers of the 
gospel penetrated into the wilderness and zealously pursued their 
calling in defiance of every danger. They learned to endure 
fatigue, to provide for their wants, and to elude the common enemy 


with the sagacity of the hunter; and those who lived to enjoy the 
dignity of gray hairs and luxury of peaceful homes could narrate 
a series of strange adventures and "hair breadth escapes" such 
as seldom occur in the lives of the clergy. In the settlement of the 
Firelands the pioneers came singly or in small parties. The bold- 
est went foremost and having selected their lands, however remote 
from other settlements, built their cabins; others followed and 
settled around them, forming little communities; and when these 
isolated settlements extended so as to come in contiguity, the arm 
of government was felt, and the mild operation of law diffused. 
Civil institutions having been introduced the spirit of improve- 
ment was awakened. 

The sound of the axe saluted the ear in every direction; roads 
were opened; magistrates had been elected and were assuming the 
authority of their stations; and females who had heretofore con- 
fined themselves within doors brooding over their offspring like 
watchful birds, and who had found even the sacred fortress of 
woman, the fireside, no protection from Indian violence, now felt 
at liberty to indulge the benevolent propensity for visiting their 
neighbors and talking over the affairs of the community. 

The first Methodist society on the Firelands was organized by 
Rev. Wni. Gurley^ at Bloomingville, in the fall of 1811. He formed 
a class of ten members which soon increased to fifteen. 

When General Hull surrendered Detroit to "the British this 
little society was broken up and was never again organized. 

The next society was formed by the Rev. John Beatty, in 1816, 
near Bogart's Corners, of fifteen members. In the fall of 1818 the 
Ohio Conference sent two ministers to the Firelands; their namfs 
were Revs. Godred and Boardman. And now under their minis- 
trations the first camp meeting in Northern Ohio was to be held. 

This popular mode of worship had been practiced and found 
highly beneficial and convenient in new settlements where public 
edifices had not yet been erected and where private habitations 
were too small to accommodate worshipping assemblies; and the 
effort now about to be made for its introduction in the west was 
hailed as a happy omen for the country. The spot was selected on 
the farm of Ephraim Munger, a local preacher at the "old county 
seat." The whole neighborhood united in clearing the ground, 
erecting huts and making arrangements for the accommodation of 
the people who were expected to assemble. For the convenience 
of obtaining water, a place was chosen on the margin of a small 


rivulet and near a fine spring. The ground was a beautiful eleva- 
tion sloping off on all sides and crowned with a thick growth of 
noble forest trees. The smallest of these, together with all the 
underbrush, were carefully removed, leaving a few of the most 
stately, whose long branches formed a thick canopy at an elevation 
of thirty feet from the ground. The camp Avas laid off in a large 
square, three sides of which were occupied by huts, and the fourth 
by the stand or pulpit. The whole of the enclosed area was tilled 
with seats roughly hewed out of logs. 

A busy scene was presented on the day before the meeting 
commenced, occasioned by the arrival of the people, some of whom 
had traveled a long distance. A larger number came on foot, some 
on horseback, some in wagons, and others in ox carts. The per- 
sons living in the immediate neighborhood had each erected his own 
hut with the intention of accommodating, besides his own family, 
a number of guests; large quantities of game had been taken, 
beef, pigs and poultry had been killed, and the good wives had 
been engaged for several days in cooking meat and preparing bread 
and pastry. The meeting commenced on Tuesday and lasted until 
Monday, the whole of each day being occupied with religious exer- 
cises. At daylight in the morning the voice of prayer was heard 
in each hut where families were separately assembled as such for 
worship. Shortly afterwards the fires were kindled around the 
encampment and a few of the females were seen engaged in cook 
ing. A few individuals then collected on the seats in the area and 
raised a hymn, others joined them and the number gradually 
swelled until nearly the whole company was collected. They sang 
without books; the pieces those which were generally known. 
Some of the tunes were remarkably sweet, and being sung in the 
open air under the broad canopy of heaven, and as it were, in the 
immediate presence of the great Object of all worship, were inde- 
scribably solemn and effecting. The balmy freshness of the morn- 
ing air, the splendor of the rising sun, the stillness of the forest, 
and the wild graces of the surrounding scenery gave a wonderful 
interest to this voluntary matin service. 

It was thus our first parents worshipped their Creator in Para- 
dise; thus early Christians assembled in groves and secluded 
places; and that while civilized nations had Bet apart the most 
splendid edifices for worship, ruder communities in a similar spirit 
assembled for the same purpose at the most genial hour and the 
most picturesque spot. 


After the morning hymn the ministers ascended the stand and 
service was performed before breakfast. The rest of the day, with 
the exception of short intervals for refreshments, was filled in the 
same manner. 

But nothing could exceed the solemn and beautiful effects of 
the meetings at night. The huts were all illuminated and* lights 
were placed upon elevations made by setting four posts into the 
ground about three feet apart and six feet high, putting across 
sticks and covering with earth, then building fires upon them, thus 
throwing a glare upon the overwhelming canopy of leaves now 
beginning to be tinged with the rich hues of autumn, which gave 
it the appearance of a splendid arch finely carved and exquisitely 
shaded. All around was the dark gloom of the forest deepened to 
intense blackness by its contrast with the brilliant light of the 

On Sunday the concourse was greater than it had been before; 
those who had been for years accustomed to the solitude of the 
forest, to alarm, toil and privation, felt their hearts elated with a 
new species of joy and gratitude when they found themselves sur- 
rounded by their countrymen and united with them in social and 
sacred duties. With many of them the Sabbath had long passed 
unhonored and even unnoticed, and its public acknowledgement 
called them back to holy and happy feelings. To all it was the 
harbinger of peace, security and civil order. 

It was delightful to see a whole community who but recently 
had assembled only at the sound of the drum or the glare of the 
beacon fire now coming together by a spontaneous impulse to 
mingle their hearts and voices in the rational and solemn exercises 
of religion. Isolated as that congregation was from the rest of 
mankind, the individuals composing it felt as if they were reunited 
with the great human family when they resumed the performance 
of Christian duties and knelt before the Redeemer of men in com- 
mon with all Christendom on this appointed day. Many of them 
had reared the altar of worship in their own families and the sweet 
accents of praise had been heard ascending through the gloom of 
the forest, mingled with the fiendish sound of the war-whoop and 
the dissonant yell of the beasts of prey, and they had seen days of 
moral darkness of bodily anguish, of almost utter despair, when it 
seemed as if their prayers were not heard and that God had 
abandoned this land to the blackness of darkness forever. But 
now he had set his bow in the heavens, his altar was publicly 
reared and his presence sensibly felt; and they who believed in the 
reality of religion felt assured that a sign was given them that they 
should not be destroyed from off the face of the land. Never did 
those simple and effecting Words seem more appropriate, "How 
beautiful upon the ^mountains are the feet of him that bringeth 
tidings that publisheth peace." 


Collins A. Brown, One Hundred Tears Old August 10,1885 


We are indebted to .the columns of the Norwalk (O.) Chronicle 
for the following account of the celebration of the one hundredth 
birthday anniversary of Mr. Collins A. Brown, of Fitch ville, Hu- 
ron County, O. It was published by the Chronicle in its issue of 
August 13, 1885. 


It was our pleasure to be present, last Monday, at the celebra- 
tion of the 100th birthday anniversary of Mr. Collins A. Brown, 
of Fitchville, who reached the one hundredth milestone in life's 
journey on August 10th, 1885. 

The day was cloudy and threatened rain from early morning 
until night, which kept many from attending this remarkable cele- 
bration who had planned to be present. Fortunately, however, it 
did not rain, and the day proved auspicious for those who were in 
attendance, because of the clouds which shut in the intense rays of 
the sun. 

We arrived at the residence of Mr. Brown about two o'clock 
p. m., and were surprised to see such a large number of teams and 
people. There were two hundred and thirteen teams on the ground 
by actual count, and the estimates of the number of people present 
ranged all the way from one thousand to two thousand. Our own 
estimate placed the number at about one thousand. Of this num- 
ber forty-eight were over 70 years of age, ranging up to 0:5. A 


great many between 60 and 70 years old, and thence down to the 
baby in arms. 

The old gentleman, Brown, who this day reached his one 
hundredth birthday, was the observed of all observers, and the 
center of attraction. We gave a brief biographical sketch of the 
centenarian two weeks ago, and a more extended one will be given 
next week. He looked quite aged and feeble, but still retains his 
faculties remarkably for one of his years. Drs. Skellenger and 
Kimball, of New London, reported his condition as follows: 
weight, 122 pounds; respiration, 24;- breathing, clear and resonant; 
pulsation, 80 to 84, and quite regular; temperature, 99. He ap- 
pears as though he might live several years yet. 

Mr. Brown is the father of ten children, six living and four 
dead. Three sons and two daughters were present; one daughter 
was detained at home by the broken arm of her aged husband. 

Grandchildren and great-grandchildren were present to the 
number of twenty-seven. He has great great-grandchildren living, 
whom he has held on his knee, but none were present at the anni- 

It was an unusual and novel sight to see this family of four 
generations all seated at the table at one time. 

Refreshments in abundance were served, and interesting and 
instructive addresses were made by the Rev. J. C. Thompson, of 
Clarksfield, the Hon. W. D. Johnston, of Townsend, F. R. Loomis, 
of Norwalk, Dr. A. D. Skellenger, of New London, Rev. J. P. 
Islip, of Olena, A. G. Ells, of New London. 

Several nice presents were given Mr. Brown from his children, 
neighbors and friends. 

F. D. Foster, the enterprising photographer, of Norwalk, was 
present with his camera and took a fine view of the entire family 
group, thirty-seven in number, including the old father, his sons 
and daughters, grandsons and granddaughters, great-grandsons and 
great-granddaughters. He has since finished one of the photo- 
graphs and shown it to us. It is a nice work of art, and shows the 
old man and his descendants very finely. Mr. Foster will have these 
photographs for sale at his gallery to any who may wish to buy. 

All in all, it was a very remarkable occasion, and one which 
usually occurs but once in a lifetime. 

For a more extended and itemized report of the proceedings 
we refer to our Fitehville correspondent, who gives an interesting 
account of the affair elsewhere in this paper. 



The ]00th birthday anniversary of Collins A. Brown was cele- 
brated at his residence, August 10th, 1885, superintended by several 
of his near neighbors, namely: Jno. Bigelow, Wm. Hickok, Gardi- 
ner Ellison and sister, John Rumsey, Jacob Rumsey. IT. D. Hoag, 
and others. Too much praise cannot be spoken in their favor for 
the interest manifested and kindness shown to the honored old 
patriarch of the occasion. 

Tables were spread with all the bounties that could tempt the 
most dainty appetite, and that with great abundance. 

One table was specially for the accommodation of all those 
who were over 70 years of age, of which there were forty-eight 
present, ranging all the way from 71 to 93. All appeared very 
smart, and were happy to greet each other with the friendly shake 
of the hand as in the days of their youth. 

The table was arranged in the yard, near the door of the house, 
where our Centenarian sat at the head, with his sons and daughters, 
grandsons and granddaughters, great-grandsons and great-grand- 
daughters, to the number of thirty-six, occupying seats with him 
at the table. One of the daughters, who lives in Tontogany, Wood 
County, was prevented from meeting with the family on account 
of her husband having one of his arms broken only a few weeks 
before the anniversary. 

The names of the Brown family and kindred that were present 
at the anniversary, are as follows: 

Father — Collins A. Brown. 

Children — Mrs. Sally Moe and husband, David Moe; Joseph C. 
Brown and wife; Austin A. Brown and wife; Mrs. Rebecca Thorpe 
and husband, Jerry A. Thorpe; Samuel S. Brown and wife. 

Grandchildren— O. C. Moe, Mrs. Elizabeth Pickens, Sarah A. 
Brown, Polly Rounds, Alfred Rounds, Leroy Ellis, Charley M. 
Brown, Jane L. Kirkman, Ida Stutesman, Jacob Brown and wife, 
W. M. Scott and wife, Norman Inman, Emily Shoaff, Richard Io- 
nian; Albert Baird. 

Great-Grandchildren — Eben J. Brown, Collins A. Brown, Vin- 
cent E. Brown, Bertie Ellis, Carrie Kirkman, M. A. Brown, E. W. 
Brown, Otis Brown, Alice Scott. 

After dinner the president of the day, Wm. Hickok, called 
the assembly to order around the speaker's stand and introduced 
the Rev. J. C. Thompson, of Clarksfield, who narrated, in brief, 


a biography of Mr. Brown's life from his early childhood down to 
the present date. It was listened to with mnch interest. 

The Hon. W. D. Johnston, of Townsend, was introduced and 
edified all with eloquent remarks, very appropriate to the occasion. 
The chairman then introduced the Hon. F. R. Loomis, of Nor- 
walk, who made it very interesting for all present. He gave in 
brief an outline of the condition of our country at the present time, 
contrasting it with the situation a hundred years ago. 

Dr. A. D. Skellenger, of New London^ was next introduced, 
and recited in brief some of the changes on the Western Reserve 
during the last fifty years of Mr. Brown's life while residing in 
this vicinity. His remarks were excellent, and were w T ell received. 
The Rev. J. P. Islip, of Olena, next made an interesting ad- 
dress, getting the audience in good humor with his enjoyable 
remarks. A. G. Ells, of New London, an old pioneer, made a few 
remarks, after which the Clinton Cornet Band played some stirring 

The audience then formed in line and marched through the 
yard, where they had the privilege of seeing our worthy Cente- 
narian sitting in his easy chair, which had been presented to him 
by the people of his neighborhood and some of his New London 

The people now began to disperse for their homes, all glad 
that they had been permitted to gather on such an occasion and 
spend the day in social greeting. 

It was estimated by many that there were present at the gather- 
from 1,000 to 1,200 people, which we think was none too high. We 
leave the remainder to the worthy editor of the Chronicle, who 
was present, as we are not able to do justice to the occasion. 


The following biographical sketch was delivered by the Rev. 
J. C. Thompson, of Clarksfield, at the celebration of Mr. Brown's 
one hundredth anniversary, viz: 

Mr. Brown was born in Branford, New Haven county, Con- 
necticut, August 10, 1785. He, with his parents, moved to Dur- 
ham, Green county, New York, when he was about two years of 
age. In the fall of 1806, when a little past twenty-one years of 
age, he married Miss Mittie Wardow, and lived in the state of 
New York until some time in the year 1833, when he moved to the 
state of Michigan, where he resided about four years. In the fall 


of 1836 he came to Ohio and purchased the farm on which he now 
resides, and removed to it the beginning of the following year, ar- 
riving here with his family the 7th of January, 1837. 

Mr. Brown is the father of ten children, six of whom are still 
living, and five are present at this centennial anniversary. 

Soon after marriage he made a profession of religion and 
united with the Presbyterian Church of Hunter, New York. At 
the time of his removal to Michigan, he took a letter of dismission 
and recommendation from the church at Hunter, which he retained 
during his residence in Michigan, because there was no church or- 
ganization nearer than twelve miles from where he then resided. 
After his removal to Ohio, he presented his letter and united with 
the Congregational Church at Fitchville, at its organization. At 
the organization of the North Fitchville church, near his present 
residence, he removed his membership to it, and has continued a 
worthy, respected member until the present time — his centennial 

During my first six years of pastoral connection with this 
church, Father Brown was never absent from the church service 
but two Sabbaths. Would that all church members could furnish 
such a record. 

At the age of 81 years he rived and shaved over six thousand 
shingles, with which to recover the meeting house, and when after- 
ward I told him how the carpenters praised the shingles as being 
the best lot they ever nailed on the roof of any building, his reply 
to me was that he was working for the Lord, and he wanted to do 
him a good job, as it was probably about his last work. 

He was over two years old when the Constitution of the 
United States was framed and adopted, and more than three years 
old when George Washington was first elected President of the 
United States. 

His recollection to-day is very distinct about the deatli of 
George Washington. He remembers seeing an Albany newspaper 
dressed in mourning on that occasion. 

His father was a Revolutionary soldier under Washington, 
and he remembers well and vividly of hearing him call to the mail 
carrier as he rode up on horseback in front of his father's residence, 
"What's the news? What's the news?" and the reply, "Wash- 
ington is dead." 

His first presidential vote was cast for Andrew Jackson. The 
reason why he did not vote earlier was that the laws of the state 


of New York required a property qualification, which he did not 
possess until that time. 

Since the organization of the Republican party, he has always 
voted with that party, casting his last vote for General Garfield. 

His providential escapes from death have been numerous and 
narrow. Once, when a boy, he was thrown from a horse, his foot 
hanging in the stirrup, and was dragged a long distance, when for 
no reason, so far as he could understand, except the direct interpo- 
sition of Providence, the horse suddenly stopped and remained 
quiet until he was able to disengage his foot from the stirrup. 

At another time, in the vicinity of Fitchville, he was kicked 
by a horse in the face, literally mashing his jaw, the scar of which 
he still carries. The first two physicians that were called declined 
to dress the wound, on the ground that he could not live. A third 
one dressed the wound, removing several broken bones from the 
jaw, and he recovered and still lives. 

Father Brown has always been a total abstainer from all intox- 
icants. So much for temperance. 

He has lived a most enviable life; honest, honorable, christian, 
cheery, securing the esteem, confidence and good will of all his 
neighbors; giving some trouble to exegetis in the interpre- 
tation of the saying of our Savior, " Woe unto you when all men 
shall speak well of you," but fulfilling and rendering plain and 
radient another Scripture passage, " Men will praise thee when 
thou doest well to thyself." 

I am sure, my friends, that all of you will unite with me in 
the wish that the few remaining days of this centenarian father 
may be days of peaceful quietude and hopeful anticipations of a 
brighter and more glorious life than this, in the " house not made 
with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

As indicating his religious state of mind, I may mention that 
he informed me not long since, that he had selected the text from 
which he wished his funeral sermon preached. After naming the 
book, chapter and verse, John, 16th chapter and last verse, he re- 
peated it to me verbatim without hesitancy: " These things have I 
spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world 
ye shall have tribulation, but be of good cheer. I have overcome 
the world." 


Martin Kellogg, of Bronson, reached his ninety-ninth birth- 
day, September 21st, 1885. He is still quite active for one of his 
years, and now, on this 10th day of November, 1885, gives fair 
promise of reaching his one hundredth birthday. 

The following communication, written by Mr. Kellogg in 1883, 
we clip from the Nor walk Reflector: 

"The following communication is from a citizen of Bronson, 
who, though now 97 years of age. knows what he is talking about: 

Editors Reflector:— I see in your issue of June 5th, the 

"It is recalled by some very old men that the year 1816 had 
no summer, and corn grown in 1815 was used for sejd in 1817; 
the corn crop of 1816 being entirely destroyed by frosts and snow 
on the 30th of June." 

Now, these very old men are very much mistaken. It is true 
that 1816 was called the " cold summer"; it is true that on the 
morning of June 16, 1816, there was a frost that killed some of 
the beach leaves. It is equally as true that the writer of this raised 
some as good, ripe corn, fit for seed, as he did the following year. 
The corn was raised on the farm of Mr. Levi Cole, the farm now 
owned by his son, Miner Cole. The fourth of July, 1816, I was 
hoeing corn on this farm, and there was quite a gathering at the 
house of Mr. Cole, for a Fourth of July celebration, I can give 
the names of all who were there: 

Major David Underbill and wife; Mr. Daniel Mack and wife, 
from Peru; Mr. Reuben Pixley and wife, Mr. Hanson Heed and 
wife, Mr. Samuel B. Lewis and wife, Mr. John Chapman (Johnny 
Appleseed). From his habit or business of planting nurseries, h e 


was often called Johnny Appleseed; a very worthy man and a dis- 
ciple of Emanuel Swedenborg. He was said to be the orator of 
the day at the celebration. Mr. Cole and most of the others came 
into the field to see the corn, or to see if a Vermonter knew how 
to hoe corn. 

The frost had not injured the corn, and the snow was in the 
New England States. This was 67 years ago the present summer. 
Mr. Underhill and Mr. Cole moved in with their families in Feb- 
ruary. Mr. Cole's family was then himself and wife, his sons 
Jeremy, Asher, Levi, James, Miner, Manley and Lyman. 

Dr. Joseph Pearce, the first physician in Norwalk and Bron- 
son, and his sister, lived some years with the Cole family. Some 20 
or more years ago, it was said in BdlloiCs Monthly Magazine, that 
there was not an ear of corn raised in 1816, north of Mason and 
Dixon's line. Some mistakes made at the Hub as well as else- 
where. Martin Kellogg. 

Bronson, June 11, 1883. 

The following letter was written by Mr. Kellogg in 1885, two 
days before his ninety-ninth birthday, to the Corresponding Secre- 
tary of the Firelands Historical Society, viz: 

Bronson, Sept. 19, 1885. 
Mr. H. L. Stewart, Corresponding Secretary: — 

Your communication received, and in reply will say that for 
nearly two years I have not been to Norwalk, nor to any of my 

With health, memory, sight and hearing very much impaired, 
have not been able to do anything in direction required. If I 
ever knew of the appointment named, it was forgotten along time 

Will give the time and place of my birth: Born in Bethel, 
Windsor County, Vermont, September 21, 1786; two days more 
will close my ninety-ninth year. On the 17th of June, 1815, with 
my family, I left my native town for Ohio, and on the 30th of 
July arrived at Avery (now near Milan). But three families in 
Norwalk township then. Ou the 17th of June, 1816, with my fam- 
ily, I removed into the wilderness of Bronson. 

Respectfully yours, 

Martin Kellogg. 

Should receive it a favor to have a call from you. 


The following poem was written by H. W. Hathaway, of 
Jersey City, New Jersey, and read to Mr. Kellogg on his ninety- 
ninth birthday, by the young man: 


SEPTEMBER 25th, 18S5. 
[by his great nephew.] 

Ninety and nine! How fast time has flown! 

But yesterday I was a boy on the farm; 
And now to my ninety-ninth year I have grown 

And left youthful life with its joy and its charm. 

I remember the days of my childhood, long past; 

Of the days of my spending at school. 
What a bountiful blessing, my memory lasts, 

Though the ardor and warmth of life cool. 

My memory now is a kingdom to me, • 

And I live my life over again, 
As the scenes of my past with my mind's eye I see— 

The scenes of both sunshine and rain. 

I remember the clearing we made in the woods, 

And the house from the logs which we hewed. 
No modern erection that ever has stood 

Has half of those pleasures nenewed. 

The old spacious fireplace, where hung the old crane. 

Had a warmth not the least cooled by years, 
And the fire of our love, fed by joy and by pain, 

Has grown brighter with increasing years. 

I courted and loved just as other men did; 

For the world docs not change as the years— 
Their courtin' they tried to keep secret and hid, 

And lived betwixt hopes and 'twixt fears. 

I can see the grim wars; I can see the fierce fights; 

Can remember the wide-spread alarm — 
For we men would stand up for our homes and our rights, 

And to keep wives and children from harm. 

But all that is past; and old friends are gone 

To the land where no wars e'er are fought; 
And when on my vision that bright land shall dawn, 

I shall seek them and by them be sought. 


Of Soldiers from Peru, Huron County, 0., Enlisted for the 
War of the Rebellion. 

(compiled by capt. c. WOODRUFF, OF PERU.) 

It will be seen by the following that the Township of Peru, having a population of about 
1,200, furnished the army of the Union 117 men, distributed in 22 Regiments, the navy and 
artizan departments. Of these, 33 were killed, or died of wounds or disease. The fate of 
several of the list given has not been ascertained. Seven of those who survived the close of 
the war have since died. Doubtless the number here reported wounded in action is largely 
below the actual number, as the facts relating to this part of history have nearly faded from 
the memory of those not directly interested, and the survivors are scattered over at least 
eight States. The compiler of these statistics has for several years been trying to get the list 
as complete as possible. A full history of these men would show that Peru was represented 
in every army corps confronting the rebellion, that the blood of her boys in blue was shed in 
every State where our army fought, and nearly every groat battlefield of the war has been 
consecrated by the death offering of one or more of these immortal 33. 



Win. Runnels 

Kred K. West 

Win Finch ... 

casu'ltiks in service 



8th Ohio Vol. Inft. 

2!th " 

Ohns. C.Clemmons 
Win Clark . 

>< « «» « 

<• it ■< tt 

Burkhardt Mart'/,., 
his. A. Eastman.. 
'lay ton Danfortb 
Michael Newton.. 

Lorain County, 0... 

2 th " 

l)ied of disease, 1865. 

.. •< it i« 

i. «■ (> i< 

Joseph Walswortli 
filijah Walsworth 
John Sullivan 

Wood Co.. 

.i i. .> t< 


3',d ' 

3 d " 

Peru, 0... 

eth ;; 

Alonzo Barber 


.. ii •< * ti 

.4 44 44 .1 

Died 1871 
Died 1883 

44 .4 It .4 

41 41 44 44 


44 44 14 44 

44 44 44 4. 

6!th " 

H. B. Whittlesey.. 

Died of disca.e, 18<i3.. 

Uonzo (1. Akers... 
Win. Rhinemillcr 

44 4. 44 44 


44 44 44 44 

Peru, O .. 

44 44 .4 4. 


44 44 44 .4 

ilha'nc'v Woodruff 

Jasper Ruggles 

Irving Hough 

Bovd A. Manly 

Alf'd. C.EIsworfh 
Michael Woodruff 


44 44 44 4. 

Di.d of disease, 1862 

44 44 44 4. 

65th || '| || 

44 44 44 14 

.4 44 4. 44 

07 th " 

Homer Akers 





72d Ohio Vol. In ft 

88th " 

101st " 

107th •' 
123d " 

166th " 

192d " 

193d ;; 

196th " 
198th " 
3d Ohio 



Sharp Shooters 

Construction Corps. 
Not ascertained 

9th Illinois Vol. Tnft 

Lumberk Link 

Scott Holloway 

Sylvester Ward... 
Martin M.Kyerson 
John H. Rickey... 
Leonard Chance... 
C onst'ntine Frank 

John Latimer 

James Holloway... 

loseph Bishof 

Charles Turner 

Henry S. Clapp 

Irving Cole 

Martin Dipple. ... 

John M. Terry 

Frauk Brown 

Daniel Truman... 
Judson II. Snyder 
Wiu. T. Snyder... 
Luther A. Amsden 

Markus Smith 

Wm. Sinith 

Wm. M. Sanders.. 

Phillip Sowers 

J. Durembangh... 
Silas E. Crawford 
Wm. D. Crawford 
Eugene F. Wilcox 

Sears Ketchum 

George S. Perry... 
H. I). Atherton... 

Jacob Reimel 

Edgar .Tohnson 

Virgil Brooks 

Herman Longyer.. 

Robert Mart/ 

Andrew Dufner... 

Frank Meyers 

Michael Meyers... 
Edward Rickey... 

Alfred Stevens 

Chester Holloway 

Leonard Wiess 

Chas. R. Gardner 

Delos Ashley 

Joseph Oolph 

Florae ) Rennals... 
Frank Wilhelm... 
Lewis B. Johnson 

Homer Br >oks 

Robert Dutchman 

Win. Akers 

Michael Manlet... 
George Smith.... 

Foe I P. Smith 

John Pavkis'-n 

P.urt McMaster... 
Wm. McMaster... 
Theodore Rickey- 
John Kendall 

Jacob Hummel 

Dean Clark 

Charles Atherton.. 

John Barker 

Peter Shaffer 

•John Meek 

Lorey Baymor 


Frank Stevens 

Wm. H Barber... 

Phillip Zeller 

(Christian Zeller... 

Jacob Springer 

Jackson Downing 
Philander Stevens 
Nichol is Reimel.. 
John Sanders 


Killed in action. 

Died of disease, 1863. 

Killed in action, 1864. 
Died of disease - 

Died of disease, 1865. 
Died of disease 



Died of disease, 1865. 

Died 1872 

Died 1876 

Died 1869 

Died 1875 

Die;( lc81 

Killed in action.... 

Killled in action, 1862 

Died of hurt, 1861. 

Died of disease, 1863. 

Died of wounds 


Killed in action 

Died of disease, 1862 

Diod in rebel prison. 
Died of disease, 1861! 

Died 1883 



Mt. Pleasant, Mich 

Norwalk, 0. 


Norwalk, 0. 




Peru, O 


Norwalk, U. 


Bronson, 0. 
Norwalk, 0. 

Peru, 0. 


Norwalk, O. 

Peru, 0. 

Williams County, 



Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Soldiers' Home. 


Norwalk, O 


Wood County, 0, 





Monroeville, 0.. 

Bronson, 0. 
Bronson, 0. 

Wood County. <>. 

w l County, 0. 



Sketch of their Lives by Prof. J. C. Sanders, of Cleveland, Ohio. 

Ezra Smith was born in Keene, N. H., January 30th, 1802, and 
came into Huron County, ()., July 24th, 1824. Little is known of 
his boyhood or of what were the opportunities of his education. 
He first settled in Greenwich, where he opened a store and built 
an ashery. In this enterprise he was so much encouraged that he 
decided to enlarge his field of operations and take advantage of 
river privileges and get nearer to a market for the products of his. 
manufactory. Accordingly, after about three years he removed 
from Greenwich and settled in Peru, in the village of Macks ville, 
where he opened a larger store, rebuilt and enlarged his ashery, 
erected a grist mill, a saw mill, and a distillery. The product of 
his ashery was potash or pearlash, so called, of his distillery high- 
wines and*alcohol, and of his grist mill not custom flour alone, but 
flonr for general marketing where ever he could find purchasers. 
The refuse grain of his distillery enabled him to fatten annually a 
large number of hog's, so that pork packing became a conspicuous 
factor in his business. For these varied products he found a mar- 
ket chiefly in Detroit, Mich., and made his shipments from the port 
of Huron, now of Erie County. All these exports, as well as his 
imports of dry goods to keep his store in full stock, had to be 
transported from and to Peru by the slow and arduous process of 
teaming. His wagons carrying away and bringing back his pro- 
ducts and his purchases kept the roadway between Peru and Huron 
almost daily traversed, sometimes by one team and sometimes by 
two or more. 

The founding and maintenance of this store, the building of 


this ashery, the erection of these mills and distillery involved an 
immense deal of labor, responsibility and care, and the employ- 
ment and supervision of a large number of men. The building of 
the mill-dam and of the mill-race was at that time a formidable 
undertaking, as the river was then a large and full stream and sub- 
ject to floods, and engineering art was in its infancy. 

These varied home enterprises, carried on with increasing 
enlargement and vigor, gave a stir of activity to the village of 
Macksville that drew towards it the attention and interest of the 
whole county. 

In the year 1836 he went to Indiana and purchased 500 acres 
of wild, heavily timbered land at Table Rock, Fountain County, 
on the Wabash river, where he erected a large mill and still house. 
Messrs. E. H. Gibbs, Elijah Briggs and Calvin Cole were associated 
with him in this enterprise which opened a most promising field 
for business. For the first fifteen months his nephew, Ezra W. 
Smith, was his partner in this Indiana movement. A new company 
was then formed and the men before mentioned became associated 
in the business. The capacity of the mill was 500 barrels of flour 
a day. The average price paid for wheat at that time in Indiana 
was 37-^ cents a bushel and for corn 20 to 25 cents. The company 
often purchased as high as 20,000 bushels of corn in a day and 
fattened a 1,000 hogs yearly. The company also fattened cattle, and 
to accommodate this part of their enterprise purchased in addition 
a thousand acres of prairie pasture land. Here was built up a 
great business which had before it a still greater promise. 

In carrying on each and all these varied industries he developed 
a remarkable character and wrought out a wonderful financial suc- 
cess. He showed himself a ready and accurate discerner of men. 
He was truly a leader. His rallying word with his employees was 
always " come on " rather than " go." He never asked a man to do 
or dare a thing, however riskful to health or life, that he was nut 
willing to do or attempt himself. 

In building of the darn for his mills in Peru and hi the construc- 
tion of the race he often worked knee deep in water with his men. 
Doubtless by such exposures, and subsequently by his too arduous 
labors, anxieties and enthusiastic devotion to his business, he grad- 
ually drew exhaustively upon his reserve forces of vitality and 
thereby made himself an easy prey to the disease which so pre- 
maturely smote him down. 

His character embodied such a fervor, push and energy as 


irresistibly affected all with whom he came in contact, whether in 
business or socially. He had a magnetism that won upon all. 
None respected and loved him more than his humblest emploj ees. 
There is no defining the possible range of such a character on a 
broader field of activity. He was not only fervent in spirit and 
diligent in business, but" scrupulously honorable and just in all his 
business delations, and he was as liberal and generous as he was 
just. No voice or hand was ever lifted against his integrity; no 
whisper of suspicion was ever breathed upon the shining es- 
cutcheon of his rectitude. 

He was public spirited in the best and broadest sense; he was 
the heart whose pulse was felt in every enterprise promotive of 
the public good. He was sympathetic and always tenderly affected 
toward the suffering and needy. He was benevolent in its truest 
sense; he helped the poor by employing them, encouraging there- 
by their industry and thrift and enabling them to help themselves. 
He was a devoted friend of the school and the church; by his taxes 
he largely supported the former and by his subscriptions carried 
at least one-third of all the latter's benevolent contributions. The 
last two years of his life he was a professed Christian and died 
sustained and cheered by an unfaltering trust in Jesus as his Re- 

He married, December 1st, 1829, five years after his settlement 
in Peru, Miss Amy G. Brownell, who embodied a character for 
energy, industry, economy and unselfish devotion to what was pure 
and true and just, as striking as was his own. 

There is a little romance connected with his earliest relation 
with Miss Brownell that is not unworthy of a place in this connec- 
tion. The first time he saw her was on the occasion of a call by her 
at his store, in company with three other young Misses of the 
town, for the avowed purpose of purchasing a skein of silk. This 
was the first meeting of Mr. Smith and Miss Brownell, but busy 
and hurried as he was, the arch god proved an unfailing archer; 
his heart became entangled in that skein of silk, out of which was 
woven the old, old story, whose tale was that of a vigorous court- 
ship and a blessed and happy marital union. It was also notable 
that owing to the unavoidable absence from the town of the clergy- 
man who was to peform the ceremony, they were married by a 
Justice of the Peace, at the residence of her sister, Mrs. Pardon 
Wilson, and this Justice of the Peace was Dr. Moses C. Sanders, 
who was at that time serving the State in the high office of a 


Justice of the Peace and his people in the capacity of physician 
and surgeon. He became their loved and honored family physi- 
cian, and subsequently, in each one of his two sons furnished a 
husband to each one of their eldest daughters. 

For a few years Mr. and Mrs. Smith lived in the little house 
just at the top of the hill, back or north of his store, and it was here 
all their children were born to them, but subsequently he built a 
larger and statelier home just north of this, and where they lived 
until his death. Their union was blessed with five children; one 
of whom, Amelia Maria, their third born, died in babyhood, sur- 
viving only one year and fifteen days. Another, their fourth born, 
Mary Phebe, survived two years and one day. Their firstborn, 
Cornelia Ruth, married and still lives as the Avife of Rev. Wm. D. 
Sanders, now of Jacksonville, Illinois. Their second born, Albina 
Grinnell, married and still lives as the wife of Dr. J. C. Sanders, 
now of Cleveland, O.; and their fifth born, Mary Ermiria, is now a 
resident of the same city. 

This home and family were signalized by the most unselfish 
devotion, reverent respect and tender love. A benediction of joy, 
and peace, and comfort, hung like a halo over their threshhold. 
Father, wife and children were never so happy as when alone 
together, whether at the fireside or at the altar; yet they ever ex- 
tended the largest, warmest and most generous hospitality. 

But alas, just as his deep laid plans of business were success- 
fully maturing; just as the sun of prosperity was high ascendant 
and his horizon was luminous with a still more splendid promise; 
just as he had reached the vantage ground of ample resources and 
the mount of his ambition rose clear before his vision; just as he 
had secured a beautiful home, and by his noble and womanly wife 
had filled his quiver with blithesome children; just as lie had 
amassed a competence for their comfort and liberal education; just 
in the prime of years, powers, endeavors and aspirations, acute 
disease assailed and destroyed him. The sickness which struck 
him down was malignant erysipelas, and it raged with such a fury 
that, in spite of the best medical and surgical skill the medical 
staff of the county could afford, he survived only twelve days, 
breathing his last on the 20th day of January, 1840, aged only 38 
years, lacking 10 days. His sickness involved great suffering, 
which he bore with heroic fortitude. 

A great light went out when Ezra Smith died. An unspeak- 
able sorrow smote and overshadowed bis home, and hung its pall 


over the village, and town, and county. All sincerely mourned 
him. The oldest and youngest, the humblest and greatest, the 
poorest and the best-to-do. 

Inertia and a lethargic stagnation slowly but surely settled 
down over all the business activities of the village, and Peru, even 
to-day, sits as it were in silence, a sad and mournful witness of the 
loss it sustained by his death. 

His wife continued to live in Peru, for the most part, for 
about 10 years, when she removed to Cleveland, where she lived 
until the year preceding her death, which occurred in San Jose, 
California, whither, with her daughter, Mary Ermina, and her 
granddaughter, Nellie Sanders, she had gone with a view of an 
improvement of her health. 

She died May 26th, ]885, aged 68 years and a few days over 
four months, having survived her husband 34 years and 5 months. 

" She knew the life-long martyrdom 
The weariness, the endless pain 
Of looking for some one to come 
Who nevermore would come again." 

She was buried in Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland, Ohio, 
whither were brought and laid by her side the remains of her be- 
loved husband and their two children. 

She was a fond and loving wife, a dovoted and cherishing 
mother, a fervent friend and an exemplary christian, ever wielding 
an inspiring and elevating influence. She was silent, but liberal 
in her charities, always freely bestowing good upon others. Her 
remembrance is still 

" Sweet as the tender fragrance that survives, 
When martyred flowers give up their little lives." 


By Clark Waggoner. 

Mrs. Lucretia Waggoner was the daughter of Francis and Lu- 
cretia Buck, and was born in Heath, Mass., April 1st, 1 787. During 
the same year the family removed to Reedsborough, Vt., where 
they remained until the spring of 1 796, then removing to Benning- 
ton, same State, and to Shaftsbury in 1800. In January, 1807, with 
her brother Abel and wife, she left home for what was then known 
as the "Eighteen Mile Creek Settlement," in the " Holland Pur- 
chase," Western New York. The trip was made in a sleigh and 
occupied about three weeks' time. In July, 1808, she was married 


with Petpr Lake, of Buffalo. They commenced house-keeping in the 
village of Buffalo. Mr. Lake took a piece of land of the Holland 
Company and erected a log house on it during the ensuing fall, and 
moved into it the next winter. The land was entirely wild, and is 
supposed to have embraced or been near to the subsequent resi- 
dence of Judge Ebenezer Waldren, now within the business portion 
of the city. To avoid the danger of falling timber, the trees were 
cut for some distance about the house. Buffalo at that time con- 
tained some twenty or thirty dwellings, but was growing rapidly, 
which it continued to do until it was burned by the British, in De- 
cember, 1813. At the time Mrs. Waggoner went to Buffalo there 
was but one house between that place and Batavia. 

In the spring of 1810, they moved to Northeast, Penn. Their 
residence there was pleasant until the commencement of the war 
with Great Britain in 1812, when they were visited by troubles, in 
number and degree known only to the lake shore settlers of that 
day. In the fall of 1812, a draft was made for forces to defend 
Erie, and Mr. Lake was drawn for two months' service. During 
his absence, his wife and two young children were left to all the 
sufferings of loneliness and anxiety for his and their safety. It 
was while he was at that post, that Hull's surrender in Michigan 
took place. Great fear was constantly felt for the safety of Erie, 
that being the most important point on the Lake; and when 
the British vessels conveying Hull's men to Erie for exchange for 
British prisoners appeared in sight, the greatest consternation 
spread throughout the adjacent region. Expresses were sent in 
every direction for additional men, and nearly every man able to 
carry a musket flew to Erie. When the men were thus all taken 
from the neighborhood, a man rode through the village, with a false 
alarm that the Indians were about to arrive on their mission of 
rapine and death without regard to age or sex, which greatly added 
to the terror prevailing. 

Before his time was out, Mr. Lake was taken sick and went 
home, his time expiring while there. About this time the paymas- 
ter arrived at Erie, and Mrs. Lake went there for her husband's 
meagre pay, and was compelled to stay until the night of the third 
day. She then had fourteen miles to ride on horseback, wholly 
alone, in intense darkness, with mud knee-dee]). She was in Erie 
in August, 1813, when she saw Commodore Perry's fleet sail from 
that port. Soon after this Mr. Lake and family left Northeast for 
a visit to Vermont, and returned to Clarence, between Buffalo and 


Batavia, in January, 1814, where they remained until the close of 
the war. 

In June, 1815, they left for Ohio, taking a small open boat at 
Buffalo. The passage was made to the mouth of Huron river, (now 
Erie County), in seventeen days, stopping at night, and usually 
"tenting on the beach." On one occasion they were allowed to oc- 
cupy a fisherman's shanty. During the night a strong north wind 
so raised the water at that point as to disturb the sleepers and 
drive them to higher ground outside. At one time they were wind- 
bound for two days. The company consisted of Mr. Lake and 
family, a Mr. Townsend and wife and six or seven children; and a 
widow with four or five children, who stopped at Grand River, 
Ohio. The company reached the mouth of Black River on the 
afternoon of July 4th. A celebration was in progress there, and 
the strangers were cordially received and invited to a sumptuous 
dinner, the staples of which consisted of baked cat-tish and roast 
pigs, with vegetables, the meal being free to the women and child- 
ren, with a charge of 25 cents each for the men. After dinner the 
boat set sail and reached the mouth of Huron river, July 6th, and 
continued up that stream three miles, to the "Fleming (Fiem- 
mond) place, 1- ' where the company remained till morning. For the 
night the ladies and children occupied a desorted shanty, while the 
men passed the time in keeping up "smudges," as defense against 
myriads of voracious mosquitoes. 

Not suited with the prospects, Mr. Townsend, with the boat, 
left for the Maumee river. Mr. Mack, another passenger, bought 
a tract of land in Peru Township, Huron County, on which was 
afterwards located the village of Macksville, now Peru. Mr. Lake 
and family found accommodations with Mr. Flemmond for some 
three months, during which time they were all sick. They passed 
the winter in a log shanty, occupying one room, while the other 
was used by a family named Armstrong. The four corners of Mr. 
Lake's room were occupied by the door, a bed, the fire-place and a 
small table. The latter was just large enough for the parents, the 
children waiting for the "second table." The fire-place (?) con- 
sisted of stones piled up (without mortar) to a height of some five 
feet, without chimney, the smoke escaping through a hole in the 

In the spring of 181 G the family went to the County seat, 
some two miles south, since known as the "Old County seat." 
Here they remained two years. Mr. Lake's health became poor 


and they removed to a farm near by in the spring of 1818, soon 
after which time he died, aged 37 years, leaving his wife and five 
young children, viz: Sophia Keeler, who died near Milan, in 1854, 
aged 46; Elisha, who died in Toledo, in October, 1838, aged 28; 
Lucretia Thompson, still living at Findlay, Ohio; Francis, who 
died at Winona, Minn., January, 1873; and Susan, an infant, who 
died in September, 1818. 

In July, 1819, Mrs. Lake and Israel Waggoner were married, 
and their home came to be known as the " Waggoner farm," about 
a mile below the old county seat,. where they remained until April, 
1828, when they removed to Milan village. Here they lived until 
May 19th, 1857, when Mr. Waggoner suddenly died of heart dis- 
ease, leaving three children — Clark, then and now (1885) of To- 
ledo; Ralph, now of Clyde, and Mary, now the wife of Richard H. 
Kinney, Seneca township, Lenawee county, Michigan. Mrs. Wag- 
goner and daughter Mary remained in Milan until June, 1869, 
when she left to make her home with Mrs. Kinney, who was then 
married, and with whom she spent the balance of her days, dying 
October 27th, 1872, aged 85 years and 7 months. Her remains 
were buried at Milan beside those of Mr. Waggoner. 

Amid the thousands who left the comforts and joys of domestic 
and social life in the east, to meet the disappointments and trials 
of the pioneer in the forests of the west, few were called to more 
severe experience than attended Mrs. Waggoner's case. The facts 
given will indicate what she was called to undergo — all of which 
was met with a heroism and a fidelity to duty which marked her 
life throughout, and which attested the sustaining power and glo- 
rious triumph of an abiding trust in the God whom, always, she 
so loyally served and so fully trusted. Her 60 years of house- 
keeping were about equally divided between the trials and priva- 
tions of want and care of little ones, and the joys of a home of 
comfort, with loving and appreciative children. 

From infancy she was a firm believer in the Christian religion, 
and united with the first organized Church available to her after 
coming to the west, which was the Presbyterian Church at Milan, 
about 1830, then under the pastoral charge of Rev. Evert on JudsOD, 
which relation continued to her death. 


By C. H. Gallup. Esq., of Nonvulk. 

Miner Cole, son of Levi Cole, born at Fairfield, Herkimer 
County, N. Y„ July 26, 1803; died at Norwark, Ohio, August 20, 


1885. Aged 82 years and 24 days. 

Isaac Underhill, son of David Underbill, born in tbe townsbip 
of Norway, Hekimer County, N. Y., January 13, 1805; died at 
Ridgefield townsbip, Huron County, Obio, March 22, 1885. Aged 
80 years 2 montbs and 9 days. 

These annoucements mark tbe departure of two honored pio- 
neers whose lives have been so coincident as to suggest investiga- 
tion for further lines of parallel. 

Miner Cole's father, Levi, was born in Windham County, 
Connecticut, November 20, 176G, and married Hannah Kinney, of 
the same county, November 25, 1790. 

Isaac Underbill's father, David, was born in Westchester Co., 
N. Y., May 19, 1765, and married Polly Osborn, of Goshen, N. Y., 
in 1792. 

The children of Levi Cole were seven sons; Jeremy, Asher, 
James, Levi, Miner, Manley K., and Lyman. 

The children of David Underhill were two sons, Isaac and 
David, and six daughters, Thurza, wife of Horace Morse; Mercy, 
Harriet, wife of Nathan Strong; Mary, wife of Dr. J. A. Jennings; 
Aurelia, wife of A. W. Hulett; and Sarah Louisa, wife of A. J3. 

In 1791 David Underhill removed to and located land in Her- 
kimer County, N. Y., and at some time previous to 1814 Levi Cole 
located in the same county. 

In 1810 Mr. Underhill came to this county to prospect for a 
new home, and in 1811 came again and purchased thirty-six hun- 
dred acres of land in Ridgefield township, next adjoining;: the line 
of Norwalk township, for which he paid seventy-five cents per 
acre. Upon his third visit, in the summer of 1812, he made a 
"beginning" on his new purchase by erecting a log cabin on the 
bank of Huron river, near the site of the old saw mill now rapidly 
going to decay. In 1813 he came "west," for the fourth time, to 
increase his improvements. 

Upon these trips he carried goods to barter for furs, which 
brought him a good profit on his return east in the fall. 

In 1814 he was accompanied on his fifth western trip by Levi 
Cole and Timothy Baker, who came, Cole for the purpose of " look- 
ing" at a portion of his lands with a view of purchasing, and Baker 
on a prospecting tour. Cole bargained with Underhill for a piece 
of land this side of the present residence of Sidney Brown. 

On his sixth trip, in 1815, he was joined by Mr. Cole, with his 


oldest son Jeremy, Horace Morse and Dr. Joseph Pierce. Mr. 
Cole and son at once commenced improvements on the land bought 
from Underhill, put up a log house, commenced a clearing and 
worked faithfully and well to prepare a home for. the reception of 
the family the next year. 

Dr. Pierce purchased from Benjamin Newcomb lot No. one in 
the south-west corner of section four, in Norwalk township, (now 
known as the Miner Cole farm), became first postmaster of Nor- 
walk on August 6, 1816, and the first practicing physician of Nor- 

On this visit Mr. Underhill commenced the erection of a 
" double log house," at the raising of which all the able bodied 
men in Huron County within a radius of fifteen miles were present, 
there were sixteen all told. 

July 16, 1815, David Underhill, Levi Cole and Dr. Joseph 
Pierce brushed out a "trail" or road from Abijah Comstock's place 
(the present residence of John Randolph, Jr.,) to the "Sand 
Ridge," as the present site of the City of Norwalk was then called, 
and on the next day completed their work along what is now Main 
street, to Mr. Underbill's place. 

In January, 1816, Mr. Cole and family (including Miner, then 
near thirteen years old) and Mr. Underhill and family (including 
Isaac, then about eleven years of age) with six teams and sleighs, 
laden with household goods and supplies, left their old homes in 
New York, and at the end of six weeks of laborious travel, reached 
their new homes February 22, 1816. 

Such were the fathers of Miner Cole and Isaac Underhill — 
bold, sturdy, provident and honorable men, who left their mark 
upon their clay and generation, creating homes out of the primeval 
wilderness, laying the foundations of a state and giving tone and 
character to posterity. Cotemporaries at birth, co-laborers in life, 
and joint pioneers. 

Miner Cole continued to reside upon the old homestead (the 
Newcomb place) until his death, a period of sixty-nine years. 

He was married in Ripley, July 30, 1840, to Mary A. Allen, 
who died September 20, 1861. Their only child, Asher Miner 
Cole, now owns and resides on the old, historic homestead. 

Manley K. is the only survivor of the seven sons of Levi. 

Mr. Cole at one time held the office of township trustee, hut 
was not a politician nor office-seeker. Until Abraham Lincoln 
issued the memorable emancipation proclamation, he was politically 


a " fence man," from that time to his death a strong republican. 

In religious matters he was always liberal, and in his later 
years connected himself with the Universalist Church. 

Isaac Underhill also continued to live on the old homestead 
until his death, a period of sixty-nine years. 

He was married March 28, 1851, to Amanda Patten, whose 
father was an early settler at Dayton, Ohio. She died July 5, 1852, 
leaving one child, who died in January following. He was again 
married December 2*7, 1855, to Lydia Gregory. The issue of this 
second marriage was five children, of whom four are now living; 
Isaac M., Isabel F., Edwin G. and Arthur. His widow and daugh- 
ter, yet reside upon the old homestead, and with them resides Mrs. 
Harriet Strong, the only survivor of the children of David Under- 
hill; she was eighty-aight years of age on February 5, 1885, her 
only son resides at Kearney, Nebraska. 

Mr. Underhill was an earnest and warm partizan, but so far as 
the writer knows, was never an office holder. His political history 
may be summed up in two words, Whig, Republican. 

In religion he was a consistent and exemplary member of the 
Baptist Church. 

The old "Underhill saw mill," erected in 1817, was abandoned 
in 1876, after fifty-nine years good service in furnishing lumber 
for thousands of houses in the surrounding country. 

The present Norwalk water works buildings stand only a short 
distance away from the old mill site. 

Co-pioneers, neighbors and friends, Miner Cole and Isaac Un- 
derbill are gone and their memory is held in respect by those who 
knew them. 

Frugal and prosperous, because just and honorable, they have 
left their " foot-prints on the sands of time." 

"Foot-prints that perhaps another 

Sailing o'er life's solemn main, 
A forlorn and ship-wrecked brother 

Seeing, may take heart again." 


From the Toledo Blade of November 17, 1884. 

In recording the death of one like Mrs. Elizabeth P. Osborn, 
who passed away from her earthly home and loved ones Saturday 
night, November 15, 1884, it is hard to find words to fitly repre- 
sent the universal sorrow and regret with which the tidings were 


received, here where she Avas so well known and beloved. All 
things seem inadequte and Tennyson's words come forcibly to 

"And common is the commonplace 
And vacant chaff well meant for grain." 

And yet no one who recalls her life could rest satisfied with a 
meager mention of her death, and of her loss, not only to her own 
family and immediate friends, but to her wide circle of acquaint- 
ances which make up Toledo society. For over a quarter of a cen- 
tury she has been a prominent member not only of the social world 
of Toledo, but an active, earnest, energetic laborer in the field of 
good work, and now that she has folded her hands in a slumber that 
knows no waking upon earth, thoughts of what she has so well done 
will rise up to make her memory a benison to many hearts. She is 
looking gladly upon the golden hills from the yon shore of eternity, 
but the darkness of deep grief rests upon those she has left behind 
her in their shadowed homes. 

A brief sketch of her life will be interesting to many. Down 
in Phelps, New York, lived her father, Dr. Harvey Phinney, and 
there, in 1819, she was born. Left motherless, while yet a baby, a 
relative of her mother's, Mr. Oliver Hartwell, adopted the little 
one, and she was brought up as if indeed she were his very own 
child in body as well as in affection. In 1829 Mr. Hartwell removed 
to Ohio and settled near Cincinnati, afterwards going to Circleville 
with his family. Before this, however, she had been sent to a 
female seminary in Marietta, but completed her studies in one that 
had just been started in the former place. Her bright, keen intel- 
lect and retentive memory enabled her to lay the foundation of the 
intellectual culture which she showed so conspicuously afterwards. 

In 1835 she met Mr. Osborn, then a bright young lawyer just 
beginning his practice. After four years of acquaintance, the two 
were married on the 26th of November, 1839, and began a happy 
life together — happy always in spite of sorrows and misfortunes — 
in the village of Norwalk, whither Mr. Osborn had previously re- 

In 1858, they came to Toledo, which has been their home from 
then until now, and where they have been the centers of large 
social influence and pleasures. With a family of eight children 
growing up around her, Mrs. Osborn was the life of the home cir- 
cle, while maintaining an active and prominent position in the 
world about her. She united with the Presbyterian Church in Cir- 
cleville, and was always an earnest Christian. The Wcstminste r 


Church, to which she belonged here, has lost one of the most zeal- 
ous and active of its members, always efficient in its work, and 
ready to co-operate with others in whatever would advance its 
beneficient influence. 

Her labors during the war must not be forgotten. When the 
Soldiers' Aid Society was formed she became one of its most active 
members, and worked in season and out of season to forward the 
cause so dear to her patriotic heart. 

Family affection with Mrs. Osborn was very strong, and she 
has never been herself since the death of her son James, in 1875. 
In 1882 her mother's heart was again crushed by the loss of another 
of her loved ones, her son Ralph, and from that blow she has never 
seemed to rally. Two sons and four daughters remain to mourn 
with their father this sad loss. 

Mrs. Osborn was a woman of far more than ordinary talents. 
Not only did she excel in conversation, but she was a ready writer, 
and the Blade has long welcomed her keen comments upon matters 
that had won her support or challenged her disapproval. Of her 
social influence we have already spoken. It was generally exerted 
and will be sadly missed. 

Except the assurance of the deep sympathy of the whole com- 
munity, no words of comfort can be spoken to the bereaved hus- 
band and the sorrowing children. One sweet thought must come 
in the midst of their grief: She has gone to reap the reward of a 
life full of good works. 


Written by A. D. Skellenger. M. D., New London. 

Mr. Hosea Townsend, the oldest poineer settler of New Lon- 
don Township, died at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. A. S. 
Johnson, the wife of the president of the New London National 
Bank, on the evening of December 18, 1884, in the 91st year of 
his age. Mr. Townsend first came to the township from Massa- 
chusetts in the year 1815. He selected for his home one of the 
Hnest locations in Huron County, and returned home to the east 
early in the spring of 1816. He, in company with his brother 
Hiram, who lived and died in Greenwich as one of its pioneers, 
with an ox team and much paraphernalia deemed by him to be of 
use in a wilderness county as a farmer, arrived on the 28th day of 
March, 1816. The weather was warm and the grass so much started 


that he turned the cattle in the woods, and they found a plenty ot 
live on. He was very accurate in his recollections of dates and 
the early historical events of New London and vicinity. It is to 
his credit that many of the pioneer historical facts for this com- 
munity have been preserved. He was very honest, industrious and 
faithful in the many official positions he was called upon by his 
neighbors to fill. He was kind but decisive in his family and his 
religious belief, and an excellent financier. All his living children 
are left with ample fortunes. I think I cannot better close this 
brief sketch than to quote from the History of the Firelands, page 

"August 15, 1815, Mr. Hosea Townsend, from Tyringham, 
Mass., came and located on lot No. 23, in the third section. He 
remained a few weeks, returned to the east and remained until the 
4fch of February, 1816, when, with an ox team and a wagon, in 
company with his brother Hiram, he again set out for his Ohio 
home. He was fifty-two days on the road, arriving in New London, 
March 28, 1816. Mr. Townsend brought with him the irons which 
made the first plow used in New London soil, and, as such, the 
first time used to work on the road just south of William Prosser's, 
on the little hill, then very steep, south of the creek; also apple 
seeds, which he planted the same year. He and his brother Hiram 
bachelored it for two years. The first season they planted four 
acres of corn. When harvested a portion was fed to the oxen, a 
portion ground in a hand : mortar and beech stump grist mill for 
their own food, and the other portion was sold to the red hunters 
for English specie (crowns), worth $1.06 per bushel, lie put out 
the first orchard in 1820 and 1822, built the first frame house in 
1826. He was born in Greenbush, May 25. 1794, married Miss 
Sophia Case (the first school teacher, born April 2(S, 1798) March 
25, 1821. Mrs. Townsend died March 2, 1875. He was a soldier 
in the war of 1815, and drew a soldier's pension." 

His funeral was attended by numerous relatives and friends. 
His remains were deposited in the village cemetery on December 
21, 1884. 

Myron N. Morris, born in Gorham township, Ontario County, 
New York, May 16th, 1813, came to Ashland county, Ohio, May, 
1834, but for many years has been a resident of New London, 


Huron county, Ohio, and died in this township, January 12, 1885. 


Ira Wood, born in Woodstock township, Ulster county, New 
York, January 1 st, 1804, came to Ohio, first settling in Norwich 
township, where he resided for many years, but getting old, he 
sold his farm in Norwich and bought a small farm in New Lon- 
don, where he resided several years, died April 25th, 1885, honored 
and respected by all who knew him. 


Harriet A. (Pond) Messenger was born November 22, 1829, 
at Poultney, Vermont. At the age of three her parents moved to 
Windham, Portage county, Ohio, where, on May, 17th, 1848, she 
was married to William B. Messenger; shortly afterward moving 
to Rochester, Ohio, then to Ruggles, and finally to New London, 
where she died May 6th, 1885. 


Hannah Russell was born in Windham township, Portage 
county, Ohio, March 25th, 1829, and came to New London, Huron 
county, in 1840, and died in New London, July 17, 1885, aged 56 


Charity White was born December 14, 1799, in the slate of 
New York. Moved to Ohio in 1833 and settled in Ashland county, 
but for many years has resided in New London, Huron county, 
where she died August 16, 1885, aged 86 years. 


Owing to some mistake, the death of the above named mem- 
ber of the Historical Society of the Firelands was not published 
in a former volume of the Society's proceedings. 

Sarah Jane, wife of Dr. A. D. Skellenger, was the daughter of 
Joseph Washburn (her mother Aunt Sally Washburn, of Fitch- 


ville, now almost 90 years of age); was born May 22d, 1830, and 
died December 16, 1882. Was married to Dr. Skellenger Septem- 
ber 25th, A. D. 1854. Many of the old pioneers well remember 
her energy and enthusiasm to see them well fed and cared for when 
meetings have been held in New London. History has already 
recorded her among those " women of more than ordinary intelli- 
gence, decision of character and will power; a lover of labor, in- 
tegrity, frugality, cleanliness and good order; as a model housewife 
she had few equals and no superiors." * * " To please 
family and guests and shed joy and happiness to all were her 
spheres." " An ardent lover of rare flowers and plants." 

Her former home and yard, by its desolations, too plainly tes- 
tifies, she has gone ! Long will she be missed by all. A. D. S. 

New London, Ohio, September, 1885. 


Norman S. Hakes was born in Nassau, Rensselaer county, 
New York, in the year 1818. Died at his residence in Bronson 
township, Huron county, Ohio, on the 18th clay of April, 1884. 

In 1840, he was united in marriage to Miss Adelia M. Fox, of 
Rochester, New York, and, the same year, came to Huron county, 
Ohio, purchasing a farm of forty acres, lying about one-half mile 
south of his residence, at the time of his death. By strict econo- 
my and industry, working early and late, plying his trade, which 
was that of a carpenter, he managed, at the end of four years, to 
free his land of all encumbrances. He then sold it and purchased 
forty-nine acres in a more desirable locality, and, the following 
year, added to it fifty acres more. In 1859, being entirely free 
from debt, and prosperous in his worldly affairs, he built the large 
and commodious farm house which has been known for years, as 
the Hakes homestead. He was a model farmer, industrious and 
thrifty, demonstrating, by his success, the truth of the saying, that 
" whatsoever is worth doing at all is worth doing well," and his 
farm has been long and justly denominated the " prize farm " of 
Huron county. 

Mr. Hakes was a man of irreproachable moral character, known 
far and wide and honored for his integrity and uprightness in all 
dealings of whatever nature with his neighbors. 

At twenty years of age he united with the Baptist church in 


his native place, and, although he never identified himself with 
any particular religious denomination, since coming to this state, 
he always respecte'd and revered true religion wherever he encoun- 
tered it, and had the greatest antipathy for deception or intrigue 
in any form. He has always occupied some public office, has been 
Township Assessor, Real Estate Assessor and Township Treasurer 
which last office he occupied for six years before and at the time 
of his decease. He was an interested and active member of the 
Firelands Historical Society, whose surviving members to-day 
mourn the loss of one so universally esteemed. 

Naturally endowed with great ambition, he battled long and 
bravely with the disease which threatened him, ere he succumbed 
to its dread power. His care and anxiety for his life-companion, 
who had been prostrated, by illness for many weeks before, and 
who, at the time of his death was unable to leave her couch to 
witness and participate in the last sad obsequies of her loved one, 
was proverbial, and, even amid his own pain and suffering, his 
thoughts were of her comfort, rather than his own. His family 
consisted of five children, who all survive him. Annette, wife of 
Oscar Burrass, afterwards wife of Wm. Mycrantz, of Fairfield; 
Henry, who married Miss Belle Holmes, of Fairfield; Martha, who 
became the wife of Freeborn Kellogg, now residing at Chicago, 
111.; Norman Willie, who married Miss Mary Stevens, of Fairfield, 
and Samuel Albert, whose wife was Miss Mary Pryor, of Bronson. 

At the time of his removal from earth he was the owner of 
three distinct farms, one of 111 acres, situated one and one-half 
miles from his residence, now occupied by Henry, the oldest son; 
one of fifty acres in Fairfield township, now in possession of the 
youngest son, while Normal- Willie retains the old homestead. 
His loss is regreted by scores of faithful friends who loved and 
appreciated him for the true and worthy life he lived, whose stain- 
less record will be handed down with pride to succeeding genera- 
tions as an example to be emulated. 

The following verses are a tribute to his memory from the pen 
of his daugher-in-law, formerly Miss Stevens, of Fairfield: 

It hath pleased our Heavenly Father 

To call our earthly father home 
To a world where sin and sorrow. 

Pain and death can never come; 
Though we fail to see the wisdom 

In thus bereaving friends and home 
Of the one so fondly cherished, 

We still can say, " Thy will be done!" 


Long- we watched above his pillow, 

Filled with thoughts of hope and fear, 
Knowing well the dread destroyer 

Hovered o'er the form so dear. 
Willing were the hands that served hiin 

Through the weary weeks of pain, 
From his lips no murmur issued 

Of his sufferings to complain. 

And. when came the dreaded summons, 

As we gathered round his bed, 
So gently fled the peaceful spirit 

We could not think that he was dead. 
She, who had, in joy and sorrow 

Traced life's pathway by his side 
Could not clasp his hand in parting, 

As he crossed the dark cold tide. 

For, through weary weeks of suffering 

She upon her bed had lain, 
And 'twas father's voice that cheered her 

AVith plans, " when she were well again." 
Oh, how little we imagined 

As he sought to soothe her woe, 
Planning for the hopeful future, 

He would be the one to go. 

Months have passed since we consigned him 

To the dark and silent tomb, 
Still we miss him. sadly miss him 

As when first he left our home. 
Oft of him are we reminded 

As the days pass, one by one. 
And, in all of our surroundings 

Sec the work his hands have done. 

Though, we never more shall greet him 

In our homes, we'll ne'er forget 
His kind and loving admonitions, 

And the good deeds, living yet. 
Farewell father! may we ever 

Live, like thee, a life upright. 
That we may, this life departing, 

Leave a record, pure and white. 


From the Norwalk Reflector of May 2(5, 1885, 

The death of such a man of prominence as the late Judge 
Adams, calls for more than a mere passing- notice of the event. His 
wealth of years, his excellence of character, his high moral and 
social standing, entitle him to worthy consideration and inueli 
praise. During his life he was accorded these, and now that his 
life work is ended and he has passed into that world which is un- 
seen, it is meet and proper that the life which he lived should he 


reviewed and made mention of, that his virtues and character may 
be imitated. 

George Quincy Adams was born in Jefferson county, New 
York, April 9th, 1805. When about forty years of age he moved 
to Ohio, and resided for a few years in Sullivan, Ashland county, 
from which place, with his family, he moved to Plymouth village, 
New Haven township, this county. In the year 1860 he was chosen 
to the office of Probate Judge of Huron county, and in January 
following, he, with his family, took up his residence at the county 
seat in Norwalk. He served two terms of three years each, as Pro- 
bate Judge, and shortly after retiring from this position he was 
elected by the Republicans of Norwalk to the office of Justice of 
the Peace. He held the latter office continuously until within less 
than three years before his death, being obliged to decline to serve 
in this capacity any longer, because of his hearing being somewhat 

Since his retiring from official position he has done more or 
less business, not willing, even at his advanced age, to relinquish 
entirely its cares and responsibilities. 

Some three years and more ago, his earthly companion, the 
mother of three daughters and one son who survive him, passed 
away to a christian's home and a christian's reward, and since that 
time Mr. Adams has made his home with his daughters. 

Having passed ten years and more beyond the allotted "three 
score years and ten," yet they were not "of labor and sorrow," but 
rather of joy and happy contentment, surrounded as he was by 
loving children and grand-children, who took delight in pleasing 
him and making his life all joy and sunshine. And he, with all 
his heart, appreciated these kind attentions. His children and 
grand-children were the pride of his life, and he enjoyed their 

Judge Adams was a man of decided character, and always took 
a prominent stand on all the great issues of the day. As an anti- 
slavery man, during the dark days before the war, his heart went 
out toward the black man in his oppressed and down-trodden con- 
dition, and he helped many an one on toward the north star. As a 
temperance man he was always firm and decided against the giant 
evil of intemperance, and his voice was often heard in condemna- 
tion of the wicked traffic in intoxicating liquors. But notwith- 
standing he was so outspoken in these respects, his opposition was 
so firm and decided that he made no enemies, but rather friends; 


and no man in the town or county where he Lived had more or 
warmer friends than he. His nature was so congenial; hia ways 
and manners so pleasant; his conversation so instructive and intel- 
ligent, that men and children loved and enjoyed his company. 

On the 9th day of April last, he celebrated, in company with 
a large number of his old friends and neighbors, his 80th birth- 
day. It was one of, if not the proudest occasions of his life. lie 
had long thought of it and planned its details, and his children 
were happy in carrying out his every wish. 

Since that time his health has failed. The long and extreme 
cold winter seemed to sap his vitality, and it was noticeable to his 
friends that he was going gradually down the declivity of Life. 
His strong and vigorous constitution was wasting away and* no 
medical aid could arrest it. His feeble steps told to those around 
him very plainly that he was nearing the last mile-stone, and he 
reached it sooner than his friends anticipated. 

On Tuesday night, May 19th, an hour before midnight, his 
breath grew shorter and fainter, his heart stopped beating, and 
without pain or struggle, his life was ended and he was forever at 


By J. N. Watros, of Norwalk, O. 

Mrs. Nancy Watros w T as the daughter of Deacon Ezra Strong 
and Nancy Gates. She was born in Hanover township, Oneida 
county, New York, July 4th, 1*797. In company with her parents 
she emigrated to Ohio and settled in the vicinity of what was 
afterward known as "Strong's Ridge," in Ridgefield township, 
Huron count}. She was united in marriage to Wm. W. Watros, 
in Ridgetield, October 1st, 1817. In May, 1819, they moved to 
Fitchville and settled on a farm half a mile south of the site of 
the village, where they continued to reside during the' life of .Mr. 
Watros; he died April 30th, 1850. After the decease of her hus- 
band Mrs. Watros still continued to live on the old homestead with 
her son, George W., until about the year L870, when they removed 
to Kalamo, Eaton county, Michigan. Sometime in the summer of 
1880 she had a stroke of paralysis; after which she was a constant 
sufferer and from which she never fully recovered. She died in 
great peace at the residence of her daughter, Jane Welthy, (near 
Kalamo), who tenderly cared for her. Her death occurred Septem- 


ber 11th, 1881, at the advanced age of 84 years, 1 month and 7 days. 

Mr. and Mrs. Watros was the fifth family in the township of 
Fitchville. Abram Mead, Peter Mead, Rundle Palmer and Samuel 
Palmer having preceded them. There was only about half an acre 
of land cleared in the township when they arrived; and Almira N., 
their oldest daughter, was the first white girl born in the township. 
(Varna Mead, son of Peter Mead, was the first white child born in 
the township). Mrs. Rundle Palmer and Mrs. Watros joined 
teams in their first attempt at making soap; a full gallon was the 
quantity they had to divide between them. Mr. and Mrs. Watros 
were present and took part in organizing the first Methodist society 
in Fitchville, and became members of the same. They both re- 
mained steadfast adherents to the M. E. Church while they lived. 

It was no uncommon occurrence in those early days for the 
Indians to call at the door of the log shanty and ask for food or 
other favors; or for wolves to make night hideous with their howl- 
ing. The writer of these lines well remembers, many a time, being 
wakened in the dead hours of night by the unearthly yelling of 
the wolves, and on going out in the morning would find anywhere 
from one to a dozen dead and dying sheep scattered over the field. 

One incident it may not be amiss to relate. On an afternoon 
of a summer day, an older sister and two younger brothers, with 
the writer, had sauntered out along the western bank of the Vermil- 
lion river, somewhere from a quarter to half a mile into the forest. 
Forgetful of time we prolonged our stay until the shadows of 
night-fall began to thicken about us, when all at once the wolves 
set up an awful yelling, seeming but a few rods below us. It was 
a moment of terror to us! As usual our family dog was with us 
and on hearing the wolves he crouched as if in terror, and looked 
anxiously at us as if he would say "run for your lives." I need 
not add that we did run, the dog trotting close behind us with his 
hair standing stiff with fear all over him, till we reached in safety 
an open field, glad indeed to leave our canine pursuers in the forest 
behind us. 

In common with others, Mr. and Mrs. Watros shared the hard- 
ships and privations of pioneer life. 

She was the mother of thirteen children. Seven sons and six 
daughters. Three sons have died, Wesley J., aged 18 months; 
Silas G., aged 10 years; and Solomon E., aged about 3V years, who 
died in his country's service, in the U. S. A. hospital at Keokuk, 
Iowa. Two daughters have died, Emily E., aged 22 years; and 


Almira N., aged about 54. Eight are still living. Four sons; one 
in California, one in New London and two in Norwalk. Also four 
daughters, one in Fitchville, one in Olarksfield and two m Michigan. 


By J. H. Donaldson, of Ripley. 

David T. Maynard was born in Chenango county, New York, 
July 29th, 1808. Died December 80th, 1884, in Ripley township, 
Huron county, Ohio, at the age of 76 years, 5 months and 1 day. 

He was the first-born in the family of David and Mary May- 
nard. When he was about three years old his parents moved into 
Cayuga county, New York, and remained there until 1832, when 
they came to Huron county, Ohio, and settled in Ripley township. 
David T. remained in New York state after his parents left, until 
the next year, in June, 1833, when he, too, came to Huron county, 
in company with James Hopkins and Walter Holmes. Before tak- 
ing his leave for New York state again, which occurred in a week 
or ten days, he bought one hundred acres of land in the woods of 
Ripley township, of Thomas Wallen. 

On September 1st, 1833, he was married to Elizabeth Whiting, 
of Cayuga county, New York. He returned to Huron county, 
Ohio, with his wife, the same fall, and at once put up a log house 
on his land in Ripley, in which they began house-keeping. The 
experiences of pioneer life were theirs, but in a few years, by dint 
of hard work and economy, the forests gave way to fruitful fields 
and the log cabin to more capacious and modern farm buildings. 

The health of his wife failed, and on the 12th day of January, 
1863, she died, having shared with him the joys and sorrows inci- 
dent to life, for nearly thirty years. 

By this marriage there were born to them six children, three 
sons and three daughters, as follows: Alanson W., Ira M., Anna 
E., Mary T., Lois J. and George F., all of whom are now living 
(March, 1885) except Lois J., who died October 9th, LS59, at the 
age of fifteen years. Two of the sons, Alanson W. and Ira M., 
now reside in Greenwich, and George F. in Ripley, Huron county, 
Ohio. Of the daughters, Anna E. (Mrs. Frank Grandy), resides 
in Fairfield, Lenawee county, Michigan, and Mary T. (Mrs. J. E. 
Terry), in Marietta, Washington county, Ohio. 

On August 6th, 1865, about two and a half years after the 
death of his wife, he married Mrs. Lorinda M. Dickson, >,,> Miss 


Palmer, who survives him. By this second union there was born 
to them only one child, a daughter, Diana Maud, who now resides 
with her mother on the old homestead. 

Three brothers also survive him: D. Z., John and G. C, all of 
whom reside in Ripley township, Huron county, Ohio. 

He was a man of considerable independence and positive 
force, always entertaining and daring to express an opinion, how- 
ever much it might differ from the opinions of others. 

By his death, the community in which he lived lost a good 
neighbor, his wife a kind husband, and his children an indulgent 


By J. H. Donaldson. 

Mrs. Angel ine Maynard was born in Seneca county, New York, 
February 14th, 1820, and died in Ripley, Huron county, Ohio, 
April 8th, 1885, at the age of 65 years. Her maiden name was 
Osborn, and she remained with her parents in New York until the 
fall of 1843, when she came to Huron county to visit her brother 
Wakeman, who was then residing in Fairfield township. Having 
a liberal education she engaged to teach school in Ripley during 
the spring and summer of 1844. A short time after the close of 
her school here, and on September 29th, she was married to John 
G. Maynard, who survives her. Six years of their early married 
life were spent in Norwalk and Peru, after which they settled on 
their farm in Ripley, where she died. 

There were born to them five children, three sons and two 
daughters, as follows: Charlotte A., (Mrs. H. T. Mead), who died 
August 7th, 18*77, at the age of 32 years, leaving her husband and 
seven children. Lois, who died in infancy, January 22d, 1862, 
Wakeman O., John T. and Orman, who are living and unmarried 
at this writing, May 2d, 1885. One sister residing in New York 
and one brother, Wakeman Osborn, residing in Norwalk, Ohio, 
survive her. 

In early life she embraced Christianity, united with the Bap- 
tist Church and in her daily walk and Godly conversation exempli- 
fied in a superlative degree the religion she professed. 

Of her it may truly be said, " Blessed are the dead who die in 


the Lord from henceforth. Yea saith the Spirit that tiiey may rest 
from their labours, and their works do follow them." 


By T. L. Mead, of Greenwich. 

The death of Mrs. Annis Mead, of Greenwich, Huron county, 
Ohio, widow of Luther Mead, which occurred on Friday, March 
13th, 1885, removes another of the few remaining pioneers of that 

Mrs. Mead was born in South Salem, Westchester county, New 
York, on April 8th, 1792, and lacked less than one month of com- 
pleting her 93d year. She was descended from pious ancestry of 
the old Puritan stock, who at a very early day settled in New Eng- 
land, and from early childhood was trained to habitual attendance 
on public worship, and reverence for sacred things. Her grand- 
father was pastor of the church of her native place for over forty 
years. January 12th, 1820, she was united in marriage to Luther 
Mead, of Greenwich, Fairfield county, Conn., which union lasted 
fifty-six years, lacking one day. Mr. Mead died January 11th, 
18*76, at the ripe age of eighty-five. In the spring of 1820 she re- 
moved to New York City, where she lived for some years. Some, 
where near 1822 she, with her husband, made a public profession 
of religion by uniting with the Presbyterian Church under the 
pastorate of Rev. Dr. McAuley. Prior to her removal to Ohio, 
she resided for a time at the old home of her husband at Green- 
wich, Conn., where she became one of the charter members of a 
Congregational Church. Her third son, not now living, being the 
first child baptized in the new house of worship, and her death re- 
moving the last but one of the original members. In 1830 she, 
with her husband, came to Ohio to carve for themselves a home 
out of the woods, bringing with them letters from the young or- 
ganization they left behind, and entered into connection with the 
Congregational Church of Fitchville, Ohio, in which connection 
she remained until her death. Her youngest son was the lirst bap- 
tized child in Greenwich, Ohio. 

Many incidents could be told of her early pioneer life <li<l 
space permit. She often walked four and one-half miles to church 
on Sabbath morning, walking it back near its close, after hearing 
two sermons and perhaps attending Sabbath school. She was the 
mother of five children, four of whom are still living. For nearly 


fifty-five years she lived on the same spot from which she passed 
away; has seen the forest melt away and the dry land appear, has 
watched with keen interest the onward march of events, rejoicing 
in everything which tended to promote the interests of her fellow- 
beings and the uplifting of society. For years past she had been 
waiting for the summons, "onlv waiting till the glimmer of the 
sun's last beams are flown." Loving hearts and gentle hands min- 
istered to her to the last when on March 13th she passed into the 
eternal sunshine and to her everlasting rest. 


From the Monroeville Spectator. 

James Green was born near Auburn, New York, October 23, 
1812, and died October 17, 1884, aged 71 years, 11 months and 24 
days. He came to Ohio in 1818, and has resided in this county 
ever since, and in the village of Monroeville fifty-six years. It 
may truthfully be said of him that he was one of the pioneers of 
the town and county. He was united in marriage with Miss Cath- 
arine Palmer, of Ashtabula, in 1834. Four children were born to 
them, all surviving him. He was one of eight children in his 
father's family, two only surviving him — Dr. Green, of Illinois, 
and Mrs. Anderson, of Cleveland, Ohio. Six weeks ago an elder 
sister preceded him to the Goodly Land. When he was informed 
of her death he said: " Sister will be there to greet me when I get 

As a citizen, he was held in high esteem. By them he was 
made the first Mayor of Monroeville, and was re-elected at differ- 
ent times. He was also promoted by them to the office of Justice 
of the Peace, which office he held for twenty-seven years; and in 
this position he was a safe counsellor and executor of the law, and 
won the confidence of his fellow citizens. 

The deceased was converted and united with the Methodist 
Episcopal church when but eighteen years of a§e. From that time 
until his demise he was a consistent christian and an active mem- 
ber of the church. He was for fifty years a prominent class-leader, 
steward, trustee, and for several years Sunday School superinten- 
dent. He was a liberal contributor to the church and shared with 
others heavy responsibilities. He was generous hearted, with re- 
markable energy and dovotedness to every department of his work. 
His heart and home were always open to the itinerant and his family. 


The deceased was one of the seven who composed the first 
Methodist Society in Monroeville, which was organized in 1830. 
Of the seven, only one survives — Mrs. Nancy Green, of Wood 
county, Ohio. 

- Our sainted brother was unassuming and his quiet influence 
has been powerful for good and his memory will long be precious. 

His illness was protracted and painful, yet he bore it with 
patience and maintained a spirit of christian joy. On last Sab- 
bath he said to his family that he had had a precious season of 
communion with Jesus, and then said: "The Savior smiles and 
says there is sweet rest in heaven." At another time when asked 
if Jesus saved him, he said "Yes." The deceased was a loyal 
Methodist. He had prepared the table for communion for more 
than fifty years. 

The loved and loving husband and father, the familiar friend 
and neighbor and esteemed citizen, has exchanged earth for 


By R. C. Dean. 

Mrs. Almeda Sammis, of Townsend, died on Tuesday evening, 
December 23d, 1884, of that most dreaded disease, "cancer," being 
in her 78th year. 

Mrs. Sammis was the daughter of Cyrus and Lucy Clark, — 
born April 10th, 1807, in the town of Ovid, Seneca county, New 
York. Subsequentlyher parents removed to Ludlowville, Tompkins 
county, where she spent her childhood and youthful days, she 
being the eldest of a family of nine children, of whom but three 
sisters survive, Mrs. R. C. Dean, of Townsend, Mrs. Maria Can- 
field, widow of the late Allen Canfield, of Wood county, and 
formerly of Milan, Erie county,, and Mrs. Nehemiah Gregory, of 
Townsend township. 

At the age of twenty-one she was united in marriage to Mr. 
White Sammis, of Genoa, Cayuga county, May 20th, 1828, where 
they lived until September, 1837, when they emigrated to Ohio 
and settled in Townsend, where they lived and toiled together, 
causing: the rugged forest to give way to open fields and a pleasant 

Mr. Sammis departed this life January 2d, 1858, leaving his 
late widow and three children, two sons ami one daughter, all of 


whom are living at the present writing. Anson, one of the sons, is 
living on the homestead, and Edson in a southern clime, South 
America. The daughter, Mrs. Griffin, now living near Boston, 
Mass., who was with her mother during the last few weeks of her 

The subject of this notice was a woman of strong will power, 
and when once settled in her conscientious convictions was not 
easily moved. She was a person of great commisseration for suf- 
fering humanity everywhere, of generous and noble impulses, ever 
ready to supply the wants of the needy. She was loved and es- 
teemed whilst living, and sincerely mourned in her death. 

She leaves behind but few of the old time pioneers of our 
township, whilst she has passed on and over to mingle with dear 
and loved ones on the other shore. 

Funeral took place at her late residence Friday, October 26th, 
1884, at 11 a. m. Discourse by Hudson Tuttle, of Berlin. 


By C. H. Gallup, Esq., of Norvvalk. 

Fanny Caroline Adams was born at Hampton, Washington 
county, New York, May 1, 1800. Married Daniel Mallory, of 
Poultney, Vermont. April 24, 1824. Died at Delavan, Walworth 
county, Wisconsin, October 29, 1884, aged 84 years, 5 months and 
28 days. 

Thus we record the outline record of our friend who has left 
us for a time. Three events full of mystery, joy and sadness, ever 
recurring, ever new, and yet, from the beginning, only steps in the 
ceaseless march to the illimitable hereafter. The details of the life 
of Fanny Mallory filled in and rounded out the outlines of her his- 
tory, so that now she is remembered as a devoted wife,- true mother 
and faithful friend, cheerful, charitable and exemplary. The aroma 
of such a life is for good and never dies, and Ghe world is better 
because of it. 

Mrs. Mallory was educated at Troy, New York. After her 
marriage she resided with her husband at Poultney, Vermont, 
where her first child was born and buried. In 1830 she removed 
with her husband and several children to Sandusky, Ohio, where 
a son was buried. About 1832 they removed to Norwalk, where 
another daughter was born and three others buried. An old tomb- 


stone in St. Paul's cemetery, on West Main Street, bears the fol- 
lowing pathetic inscriptions: 

"Fanny Caroline, died May 5, 1844, aged 15 years and four 
months. Ann Eliza, died February 22, 1845, aged 11 years and 7 
months. Martha Ann, died May 25, 1845, aged 13 years and 10 
months. ' Gone but not lost.' Daughters of Daniel and Fanny 

This left them with only one child, now Mrs. Lucretia M. 
Wells, of Delavan, Wisconsin. 

While at school in Troy, Mrs. Mallory united with the church, 
and at the age of sixteen years was confirmed by Bishop Robert. 

In 1853, Mr. and Mrs. Mallory, with their only remaining 
daughter, removed from Norwalk to Poultney, Vermont, where 
they remained until after their daughter's marriage, when in 1871, 
they followed her to her western home, where kind, willing and 
loving hearts and hands ministered to the wants and comforts of 
their declining years. 

Mrs. Mallory has gone to her rest after a long life of useful- 
ness and industry, devoted to her family, friends, and to the inter- 
ests of her beloved church, whose ministrations were her great 
joy and comfort, to the end. Partaking of the holy communion 
was her last act of worship. 

" Now is done thy long day's work, 
Fold thy palms across thy breast: 
Fold thine arms, turn to thy rest." 


The following sketch was prepared and road by C. Woodruff, of Peru, at funeral services of 

the deceased. 

John Elias Minges was born in Fayette, Seneca county, in the 
State of New York, the 19th of September, L813, and died in Peru, 
Huron county,' Ohio, January 26th, 1885, in the 72d year of his 
age. His parents were natives of Pennsylvania, and his grand- 
parents of Germany. At the age of fourteen years he went out into 
the world unaided, to be the artificer of his own fortune. When 
nineteen years old he came to Blooniingville, Erie county, Ohio, 
and something more than a year later had a temporary residence of 
a few months within a few rods of the place where his spirit parted 
from its worn-out earthly house. In 1834 lie settled in Reed town- 
ship, Seneca county, on a farm which he owned and cultivated for 
a number of years. He was subsequently engaged in mercantile 


business for a time in Attica, Seneca county, and Fairfield, of this 
county. For several years # he carried on farming in Greenfield, 
and at one time owned the place formerly known as the Bucking- 
ham farm in Norwalk. He moved with his family to Peru in the 
spring of 1868, where he died seventeen years after. 

Mr. Minges was married to Miss Margaret Seed, June 12th, 
1830, who died less than three years after this union. His second 
marriage was to Miss L. F. Wilbur, the 27th of April, 1841. 

The deceased was converted to Christianity and joined the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1837. 

It may not be inappropriate on this occasion to allude briefly 
to a few leading features in the character of one who has been so 
prominently identified with so many interests of his time. In- 
dustry and zeal could be consistently written on every day's page 
of his active life. A resolve to acquire a competence through the 
channels of manly toil was embedded in his nature, and persistently 
(it may be injudiciously) carried out through life. He was eminently 
a social man. No person can reproach him for a lack of cordiality 
in their social intercourse Avith him, or soon forget his readiness 
to engage in conversation. The scriptures, their teachings, their 
integrity and their promulgation, were his favorite themes. 
Nothing seemed to give him more genuine pleasure than to open 
his house or invite to his table the ministers of the gospel, or be- 
stow his hospitality upon friends and acquaintances. 

He belonged to that class we are accustomed to call Radicals. 
When the writer of this sketch first knew him forty-five years ago, 
he was an outspoken anti-slavery man. The church of his choice 
was not then aggressive enough upon this national evil to meet his 
views. At an early day he became an enthusiastic friend of the 
temperance reform. He remained firm in these convictions to the 

Denied the opportunities of early culture, he was, in a meas- 
ure, excluded from those pursuits most congenial to his aspirations. 
His confiding disposition often made him the victim of unscrupu- 
lous, or impracticable men, who inflicted upon him losses which 
would have crushed less resolute and sanguine natures. Doubtless 
every member of his household (and there have been many) can 
testify that as a friend, a son, a husband, and a father, he has done 
for them what he considered would be for their present and future 
welfare. That the inspiring motive of his toil and privation, his 
frugality, his solicitude and prayer was, that they might be the 


happier and better for these ministrations of good when he him- 
self should be invested with the mantle of immortality, to enter 
into that land not laid down on any of the maps we have ever seen, 
a country from which he can never return, and doubtless would 
not if he could. 


From the Milan Advertiser of April 25, 1885. 

Died— At Gorden Grove, Decatur county, Iowa, on the Kith 
of April, 1885, Hiram Stewart,' aged 11 years and 19 days. 

Mr. Stewart was born in Oxford, Chenango county, New York, 
on the 28th of March, 1808; his grandfather having been an ad- 
herent of Charles 2d of Scotland, and self exiled after the disaster 
of Colloden. In early life he learned the printer's trade and 
worked at that for several years in his native state, part of that 
time being in the employment of Thurlow Weed. Soon after 
reaching his majority, he married Lorina W. Todd, of Homer, 
New York, and like many other enterprising young men, his at- 
tention was directed to the fertile lands and broad acres of the 
west. With his. young wife and one child, in 1834, settled in Ohio 
near the beautiful city of Sandusky. Endowed with good busi- 
ness qualities and unusual energies of body and mind, his efforts 
to achieve success in the new state of Ohio were attended with 
prosperity. Enjoying the confidence of his fellow citizens, he was 
often chosen to fill positions of responsibility and trust in Oxford 
and Milan, Ohio, where he resided many years. Strong minded 
and positive in his convictions, he was in youth attracted by the 
extraordinary powers and patriotism of Andrew Jackson and cast 
his first vote for him. This admiration for " Old Hickory " he re- 
tained through life. Ppssessing a large-hearted sympathy, Mr. 
Stewart early identified himself with the Anti-Slavery movement, 
and was chairman of the first Free Soil Convention in Erie county. 

In the days of the u Fugitive Slave Law," at a political meet- 
ing, commenting upon the statement that there were some men in 
the North with sufficient character to refuse to act as tools for slave 
holders, great applause was elicited by the timely assertion tl at 
"Hiram Stewart says that he will pay for at least one negro before 
he will help catch him." 

An intense lover of his country, he was ready to furnish sub- 
stantial aid in its time of trial, both to the soldiers and their fain- 


ilies at home. He purchased the first government bonds sold in 
the county; on being told he would lose the mOney, he replied: "I 
don't care if I do. The government needs help at this time and 
I, for one, shall do what I can. If this rebellion succeeds, you, as 
well as I, may lose everything we own." His beneficial example 
was speedily followed by many others in the vicinity. His inter- 
est in the welfare of our country continued throughout his long 
life, and his interesting political views were tempered with the 
wisdom of experience and an unfailing perception of right. His 
strong and impressive character was founded upon an unusually 
keen sense of justice and and a high standard of financial and 
moral integrity. It was, however, adorned with a playful humor 
and further beautified, especially in his latter years, w 7 ith a tender- 
ness of heart that drew forth the love of his family and friends, 
no less than his other qualities had evoked their veneration and 

In 18*76 he married for his second wife Mrs. S. F. Alvord, of 
Oberlin, Ohio. He had previously retired from active business, 
and thereafter, he, with his wife, divesting himself of the cares 
of a settled and continuous home, traveled wherever inclination 
might direct, frequently visiting his children, where he was always 
a beloved and honored guest and mentor. 

He passed away tranquilly and without pain, soothed by the 
presence and ministrations of all his children. His remains were 
taken to Sandusky, Ohio, and buried in his family grounds, in Oak- 
land Cemetery, on the 19th of April, 1885. 


By John G. Sherman. 

Cyrenius Beecher was born in Bridge'water, Conn., September 
15, 1798. He lived with his parents, except for a sftort period of 
time, until he w r as sixteen years old, when he went to learn the 
carpenter trade of Benj. Beech, with whom he remained until he 
was twenty-one years of age. The following February he started 
for the far west and traveled five days, carrying a bundle that 
weighed thirty-six pounds, to Delaware county, New York. He 
arrived here tired out and remained a week, then went on ten miles 
farther to the township of Walton. Here he worked at his trade 
for a year, when he married Miss Betsy Betts. Three years after 
lie went back to Connecticut and remained until 1836, when he 


started with his wife and six children for Ohio. He came up the 
river to Albany, then took the canal to Buffalo and from there to 
Huron by boat. He settled first on what was known, or lias been 
since, as the Bostwick farm, and after remaining six weeks moved 
onto the farm where he died. Here he built a log house and com- 
menced clearing up the land for a home. This secluded, yet 
beautiful place soon became a home indeed to him and his dear 
family. With willing hands, parents and children united their 
efforts to make this romantic place a home, such as is not always 
found, where so many of the real luxuries were wanting. By close 
Calculation and hard work they were soon able to build a better 
house, where he has spent his years of usefulness to his family and 
the public. In 1840 he hewed most the timber used in the erection 
of the first church (Episcopal) built in Wakeman. In 1841 Right 
Rev. Bishop Mclllvane appointed him lay reader. He was also 
vestryman and afterward warden until his death. In 1854 his first 
wife died, leaving a vacancy as only such a mother can. In 1856 
he married Miss Julia Booth, of Bridgewater, Conn., brought her 
to the old home and here they have lived surrounded with all the 
comforts of life, companionship of children and kind relatives and 
friends, enjoying good health to such an extent that the deceased 
said but a short time before his death, " I must not complain now." 
If any one was in want, a calf upon him was cheerfully responded 
to. Mr. Beecher was a man of decided character and firm convic- 
tions. Patient, trusting, and believing, he has gone to his reward. 
Died July 17, 1885, of a complication of diseases. Aged 86 
years and 10 months. 


By G. R. Walker, Esq., of Norwalk. 

The subject of this sketch — Lyman Scott — a quiet and unobtru- 
sive man, whose long life, of nearly eighty-nine years, reaches hack 
to the early days of the settlement of Huron county, has passed 
away, and deserves more than a passing notice. 

The deceased was born on the 6th of March, 17'.»7, at Middle- 
bury, Vermont, at that time new aixl almost a wilderness. Ap- 
prenticed by a widowed mother to learn the trade of a tanner ami 
currier, he remained at his trade until twenty-one years of age, 
when, with the hope and courage of the young and enterprising 
men of that day, he bade good bye to the hills of the Green 


Mountain State and started on foot for Ohio, carrying all his 
worldly possessions in a knapsack on his back. This was in the 
spring of 1818. In June he reach Huron, now in Erie county, 
Ohio, and on the 4th day of July, of that year, left Huron village 
for Norwalk by an Indian trail, arriving at Norwalk in the evening 
of the same day. 

At Norwalk he secured employment in the construction of a 
tannery by Messrs. Underbill & Tice, who resided near the present 
water works buildings, the tannery being located south of the old 
Presbyterian Church, on what is now Seminary street. 

Mr. Scott continued in the business for some eighteen months 
or two years, after which, having made a trip on foot to Columbus, 
Ohio, by an Indian trail, (there being then no roads to direct the 
way of the traveler), he located north of Milan, on a farm, where 
he continued to reside until 1874 when he sold his farm and re- 
moved to Norwalk, where he resided until his death, November 
7th, 1885, in the 89th year of his age. 

Mr. Scott, during all his long life, has been an example worthy 
of imitation in all that is noble in human nature. 

At the early age of sixteen he embraced the teachings of the 
Christian religion and to the hour of his death remained faithful 
to his vows. 

In 1824 he married Miss Mary McKinney, aud soon after pur- 
chased and moved on to the farm where he resided until the close 
of his active life duties, having reared a family of eight children; 
four boys, three of whom survive him, and four girls, all of whom, 
together with his wife, died before him. 

For some thirty years, aud prior to 18(30, Mr. Scott acted as a 
self-appointed agent of the "Underground" railway; having at 
some seasons of the year from one to thirteen of the flying fugi- 
tives from slavery housed and hidden in his. barn, whom he fed 
and guided to the laud of promise. No one of whom was ever 
known to have been caught and dragged back to slavery. To do 
this was attended with not a little expense and always with loss of 
time and personal danger. 

The writer has frequently heard the daughters of Mr. Scott 
relate the details of thrilling incidents attending these acts of 
heroism and humanity which should live in history to the credit of 
the race. 

On one occasion, having no less than eleven of these frightened 
fugitives in his barn, hidden within the body of an ample "mow" 


of ha,y, the slave hounds got upon their track, and for more than 
two weeks the family were annoyed at all hours of the night by 
the presence of armed men about the premises, often peering in at 
the windows of the house, and threatening to shoot some of the 
family, to burn the buildings, and in every way trying to intimi- 
date the old guard who never once faltered or weakened. On this 
occasion he made a contract with thp captain of a vessel, at Milan, 
to convey these fugitives to Canada, and, it being thick woods 
from near the barn where they were hiding to the Huron river, 
they were taken directly to the river in the night and put on board, 
a short distance north of Abbott's Bridge, and here the treachery 
with which they often had to deal came into full play. 

It seems that after the captain had got his money for carrying 
away the fugitives, he sent for and had an interview with the 
Slave-catchers and agreed that as he should pass the docks at Huron 
he would throw out a "snubbing" line and so haul up at these 
docks, when the rascals were to step aboard and take the whole 
party; but just here the old saw, "man proposes, but God dis- 
poses," was well verified, for as the vessel was passing down the 
river opposite Huron a " squall " sprang up, so violent as to make 
it impossible for the villain to keep his contract with the slave 
hounds, and instead of "catching" at the docks they were driven 
far out into the lake and near to the Canada shore before the storm 
abated. The fact of this treachery came out before the vessel was 
out of sight. 

These and other stirring incidents of a like character were of 
frequent occurrence, and in all of which the deceased exhibited 
that resolute manhood which made him what he was — one of God's 

His was a life so iirmly rooted in truthfulness and sincerity, 
kindness and humility, Constance and fortitude in trial as made 
him what he was — one of the grandest of men, the influence of 
whose life will live for a good many generations. 

He died as he had live, in the faith of a Redeemer to come. 


By Rev. H. L. Canfielcl, of JJellvilk'. 

Something more than a passing notice seems due to the memo- 
ry of the pioneer fathers of Huron county, who are so rapidly 
passing away, and whose ranks are already so thinned by death. 


Of this number was Lester Smith, of Bronson township, who had 
been a resident of Huron county about 70 years, and who died 
February 24th, 1885. 

He was born in Trumbull county, Ohio, in the year 1814, his 
parents having gone there from Huron county about the time of 
" Hull's surrender." The family returned to Huron county, prob- 
ably in 1815, and from that time until his death, his residence was 
in this county. The original home of the family was in Green- 
field township, and there the subject of this sketch resided until 
in the spring of 1865, he moved to Macksville, in Peru township. 
A few years later he settled in the southwest part of Bronson 
township, Peru being still his post office address. His home in 
Bronson was pleasant in situation and surroundings, and the genial 
and cheerful spirit of the owner helped to make it a pleasant home 
within; not only to his family, but to all who shared its hospitality. 

In February, 1873, he united with the Universalist Church in 
Peru, and he lived and died in its faith and fellowship. His dis- 
ease, which was of a cancerous nature, caused him long and much 
suffering, but it was bravely and patiently borne, and at the last he 
passed quietly and peacefully to his rest and his reward. His 
funeral was attended from the Universalist Church in Peru, on the 
27th of February, 1885, where a large gathering of friends and 
neighbors testified to the respect in which he was held, and to the 
profound sense of loss occasioned by the removal of one so long 
and so well known. The wife of his earlier years, and companion 
of his life journey, together with four children, survive him, to 
remember and emulate his virtues and to share the sympathy of 
those who mourn his departure. 


By John G. Sherman, of Wakeman. 

Amos Clark was born at Waterbury, Conn., December 3, 1801. 
He resided with his parents until his sixteenth year, when they 
removed to Ohio; coming all the way with ox teams and lumber 
wagons. The family located in Medina, Ohio. While living in 
Medina he had occasion to go to Cleveland through the woods, 
with only a trail cut through, and finding a good many trees blown 
across the trail he was detained on the way and had to stay in the 
woods all night. It was in March, and, the weather being cold, 
after the oxen had lain down he crawled between them and laid 


there during the night, being kept warm by heat from the oxen. 

He remained with his parents in Medina about five years, 
when he came to Wakeman. About the year 1826 he was married 
to Ruth A. Manvel, also a pioneer, she having accompanied her 
brother, Chester Manvel, about the year 1822; there being at the 
time but twelve families in the township of Wakeman. Together 
they settled down and cleared up the farm on which they spent 
their long and useful lives. 

On the morning of April 2d, 18*78, Ruth A. Clark entered into 
rest. And on September 6th, 1884, they were re-united on the 
other shore. 

Mr. Clark held several offices of trust. For a number of years 
was Justice of the Peace. He was always interested in education 
and loved music. He was kindly disposed to all, never had any 
trouble with his neighbors or others with whom he mingled. 


At Greefineld, Ohio, October 1st, 1884, at the residence of her 
son, Mr. Lewis Conger, Mrs. Hannah Conger, aged 93 years and 
12 days. 

Mrs. Conger was born on Long Island, September 19th, 1791. 
She removed with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Ludlow, to Ludlow- 
ville, New York. Ludlowville receiving its name from them, they 
being the first settlers there. 

Mrs. Conger was married to Mr. Elijah Conger, October 24th, 
1809. She and her husband moved to Milan, Ohio, in June 1833. 
Lived at Milan, O., two years. Two of their children died at that 
place. They removed to Peru in 1835, and remained there 
six years, losing two children at Peru. Removed to Greenfield, 
Ohio, in 1841, remaining there seven years. Mr. Conger retiring 
from business, they returned to Milan, in which place they begun 
life together. 

Mr. Conger died at Milan in 1851, aged 65 years. 


Maria Conger to Samuel W. Boalt, December 1st, 1830. She 
died at Peru, Ohio, February 21st, 1840. 

Delia Conger to Harry Chase, September 4th, 1833. She died 
at Peru, Ohio, July 9th, 1840. 

Clara C. Conger to Samuel Atherton, December 31st, 1837* 


Lorenzo Conger to Maria N. Eaton. He died at Greenfield, 
Ohio, September 18th, 1847. 

Julia Conger to A. J. Mowry, March 23d, 1852. She died at 
Milan, Ohio, May 2d, 1858. 

Lewis Conger to Isabelle Lowther, .Feb. 10th, 1853. Living. 

Elijah Conger, Jr., died at Milan, Ohio, December 20th, 1834. 

Cornelia Conger died at Greenfield, Ohio, October 3d, 1873. 

Henrietta Conger died at Greenfield, Ohio, July 5th, 1848. 

Charles Conger died at Milan, Ohio, November 8th, 1834. 

Two children of a family of ten are now living; Mr. Lewis 
Conger and Mrs. Clarissa Atherton; Mr. Conger living in Greenfield 
township, Mrs. Clarissa Atherton living in Fairfield village and 

Mrs. Conger was highly respected wherever she was known. 
Her life abounded in good will towards others, having deeply 
rooted in her life the Bible precept: "It is more blessed to give 
than to receive. 

She was a worthy member of the church militant nearly all 
the days of her earthly pilgrimage; a life adorned by the fruits of 
the spirit, now beyond one doubt, a member of the church tri- 

Her family bear but one testimony: " She was a noble, loving 
mother." Those who have known her most loved her best and -say 
that in the full meaning of the words, she was a mother, a woman, 
a Christian. 


From the Norwalk Chronicle. 

Joseph S. Smith died February 5th, 1885, in the 75th year of 
his life, at his home on East Main street, Norwalk, after an illness 
of several years with heart difficulty. He was out of the house 
for the last time on November 4th, when he came to the city and 
voted for Blaine, saying he would vote that day if he died on the 
road. Mr. Smith was born in the town of Pompey, afterwards 
called Lafayette, Onondaga county, New York, May 25, 1810; he 
removed to Bronson township in 1835, and was the first postmaster 
in the village now known as Olena; he served in that capacity 
nine years. He was elected Justice of the Peace in 1854 and 
served four years, but never had a litigation, being instrumental in 
having: all cases settled before they came to trial. He lived in 


Bronson until 1858, when he moved to Norwalk, where he has 
since lived. He was a mason by trade but followed farming much 
of his life. He raised three children, two of whom survive him. 
His second wife also lives at his late home on East Main street. 
One son, J. C, lives on the Old State Road, and one in Washing- 
ton county, Pennsylvania. 

The funeral services were held at Olena, on Sunday, February 
8th, conducted by Elder Hall, an old schoolmate and friend, and 
his remains were buried in the Olena cemetery. 

The family desire to extend sincere thanks for kindness shown 
by neighbors and friends during his last illness and burial. 


From the Norwalk Chronicle. 

Died at her late residence on Medina Road, East Townsend 
township, on Monday evening, September 8th, 1884, Ann Green, 
the beloved wife of William Bott, in the 96th year of her age. 

Mrs. Bott was born in Hugglescot, Leicestershire, England, 
April 5th, 1789, was married to her surviving husband April 7th, 
1817. United with the Baptist Church, in Hugglescot, in 1805. 
Emigrated to America with her husband and family in 1828. Set- 
tled in Huron county, Ohio, in 1834, and resided on the home farm, 
where she died, for the past fifty years. 

The funeral services took place at the family home on Thurs- 
day, September 11th, conducted by her late pastor, Rev. J. P. Islip, 
of Olena. A large company of friends and neighbors assembled 
to pay their affectionate respects to one we all loved. For seventy- 
three years Sister Bott had adorned the doctrine of God our Savior 
in all things. Seldom are we called upon to review a life where 
the grace of God so nearly perfected the Christian character. 
Humility, Godly sincerity, Christian charity, kindness, each 
formed a part in the life so dear to the loving family. Her acta of 
Christian liberality were many. In her the poor had ever an 
especial friend. She was an Israelite indeed, in whom there was 
no guile. 

For eleven weeks a loving family left their home and occupa- 
tion to attend a dying mother. All that love could do. all the 
comfort that wealth could bring, or affection offer, were brought 
to the loving mother, but her work was done. She desired t<> de- 


part and be with Christ: that desire is fulfilled and she passed 
away so gently that she only fell asleep in Jesus. 

• ' Sister, thou wert mild and lovely, 
Gentle as a summer breeze." 


Betsey Worthington w T as born in Fishkill, Dutchess county, 
New York, March 25th, 1789, and moved with her parents to Genoa, 
Cayuga county, N. Y., when she was eleven years old. Was mar- 
ried to Alfred Meade July 21st, 1806. He served in the war of 
1812, and died from a wound received at the battle of Lundys 
Lane, March 19th, 1829. She moved to Huron county, Ohio, with 
her children in the spring of 1834. She was married to Samuel 
Worthington October 24th, 1838. She has lived with her oldest 
son, W. G. Meade, since the death of her second husband, in 1844. 
She has been a woman of remarkable constitution and strong mind, 
having lived under the administration of every President from 
Washington to the present time. Her father, Paul Barger, lived 
to the advanced age of 94 years, and her youngest child of four 
living childen, is now fifty-eight years old. There has not been a 
death among her children for over sixty one years. She was con- 
verted in her eleventh year. Was 94 years and 12 days old at her 


Forest Messinger was born in Connecticut, November 12th, 
1799. He came to Milan (from Granville, Ohio, where his parents 
settled in 1811) in 1823, and to Monroeville in 1824 and lived here 
until his death, which occurred September 30th, 1884, consequently 
he was nearly 85 years old at his death. When a lad he enlisted 
as a musician in the war of 1812 and served until the war was over. 
The old fife is now in the possession of his grandson, F. M. Hos- 
ford, at Lincoln, Nebraska. 


Was born in Washington, Washington county, Pennsylvania, 
October IS, 1801. She lost her father during the war of 1812, and 
her mother a few years later. She then made her home with an 
uncle living at Marietta, Washington county, Ohio, from which 
place she was married to George C. Powers, February 28, 1822. 
They lived in Washington county for about two years, when they 


moved to Norwalk, Huron county, Ohio. They bought a farm on 
the Old State road, where she lived till after the death of her hus- 
band, in 1865. 

She was the mother of five children, two of whom survive 
her, and with whom she made her home, after the death of her 
husband, until her own death, January 3, 1883. 


Jonathan Prentiss came to Lyme in 1823, and died at Monroe- 
ville, October 28th, 1884. He was born at New London, Conn., 
August 21st, 1796. Sarah Durell, his wife, was born in New York 
City, and died July 22d, at Monroeville, aged about 80 years. 


G. F. Miner was born at Ithaca, New York, in 1818, came to 
the Firelands about 1828 and died at Monroeville, May 30, 1884. 


Mrs. Patty Brooks died at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. 
T. Ticknor, in Sherman township, October 2, 1884, in the 98th year 
of her life. 

Patty Pierce was born in Neversink, Orange county, New 
York, August 21, 1787. Was married in 1809 to William Brooks. 
Came to Ohio in 1822. Settled in Ridgefield township, about 
one mile east of Monroeville on the Norwalk road. In 1839 she 
moved to Sherman township, where she has since lived. 


Departed this life November 28th, 1884, Emily O. Waldron, 
in the 77th year of her age, widow of Elnathan J. Waldron, 
deceased January 6th, 1883. Emily O. Kilburn was born in Mar 
cellus, Onondaga county, State of New York; came to Ohio in 
1821; was united in marriage to Elnathan J. Waldron, August 13th, 
1826. For nearly 60 years they journeyed on together, sharing each 
others joys and sorrows. She united with the M. E. Church No 
vember 28th, 1834, Norwalk Circuit, Michigan Conference, Thomas 
Dunn, pastor, and the aged ones yet living who knew her well in 


those early days recall her active workings for the spiritual good 
of those about her. 

Her family consisted of three sons and two daughters, four of 
whom are still living. Her youngest son and daughter were with 
her at the time of her death. The two eldest sons, residing in dis- 
tant States, were denied that privilege. 

She was a faithful wife, a kind and loving mother, and some 
of her latest words proved her thoughts were with her absent ones. 
Yet he doeth all things well, and we are assured in the words of 
the text, " Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord, from hence- 
forth. Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labors 
and their works do follow them." 

She is gone to her rest, yet we would not recall her, 

Though deeply we mourn, our loss is her gain. 
Her tired hands are folded, so sweetly she's sleeping, 

While her spirit immortal with Jesus will reign. 
What joy in the thought, when life is here ended 

We may meet both again on that evergreen shore, 
Father, mother and children one* more united, 

In that beautiful city, may dwell evermore. 


On Friday, September 26, 1884, at 11:10, the life of Mrs. De- 
borah Husted, which had been lived so long and so well, went out 
and the spirit of that good and saintly woman ascended to Heaven. 

The deceased was well known in this city and throughout the 
county, as her life had been active in every christian and philan- 
thropic work. She was best known by those who were her intimate 
acquaintances and neighbors, as a lady of most pleasing and win- 
ning manners. Her whole life was one of self denial and labor 
for the comfort and welfare of others. 

She was the mother of the Husted Bros., of Norwalk. One of 
her daughters, Mrs. J. H. Husted, of Morgan Park, Illinois, who 
had been telegraphed for, arrived at 12:30, too late to receive the 
mother's last good bye. 

Mrs. Husted had nearly reached the three score and ten al- 
lotted years; the full measure of space would have been attained 
had she lived until the 9th day of November, 1884. 

The death of such a person as Mrs. Husted is a great loss to 
the community in which she has lived. The church of which she 
was an active and faithful member will greatly miss her, but home, 
the place which she made so sacred by her influence and example 


and presence, will miss her more than all others beside. 

The funeral services were held at half past two o'clock, Sun- 
day afternoon, September 28, 1884. 


Marcia Minerva, daughter of Bradford and Sarah Sturtevant, 
was born in Warren, Litchfield county, Connecticut, January 7, 
1812. Four years. later, Mr. Sturtevant, with his family, emigrated 
to Ohio, settling first in Richfield, Medina county, where they re- 
mained until 1832, when they removed to Ruggles, Ashland county. 
In 1836,the family went to reside, for a time, in Milan, for the purpose 
of securing the educational advantages of Huron Institute, which in- 
stitution Marcia and her sister had been attending for a year previous 
to the removal of the family. In 1844 Mr. and Mrs. Sturtevant, 
with some of their children, returned to Ruggles; but before that 
time Marcia had found a permanent home in Milan, having been 
married to Baxter Ashley, of that place, January 1, 1838. During 
the forty-eight years (nearly) of their married life Mr. and Mrs. 
Ashley resided in Milan, and here their seven children were born. 

October 29, 1885, fifty years after her first going to Milan to 
attend school, Mrs. Ashley left her earthly for her eternal home. 
Her last illness was brief and her peaceful falling asleep seemed a 
fitting close to a life of abiding trust in the Lord Jesus Christ, of 
conscientious obedience to his commands and of unselfish devotion 
to the welfare of her family and all about her. 

Her experiences in childhood and youth, of the privations and 
hardships of pioneer life, doubtless tended to develop the uncom- 
plaining fortitude in trial and suffering, which was one of Mrs. 
Ashley's most marked characteristics. 


At half past 10 o'clock Sunday night, April 5, 1885,. Miss 
Myra Higgins died, after an illness of six weeks, at the home of 
her niece, Mrs. E. H. Farr, of Norwalk, Ohio, aged si) jears, l 
month and 21 days. She was born in Lyme, Connecticut, and first 
came to Norwalk in 1835, with her father, the late Rev. David 
Higgins, who died here in 1842. After her father's death she lived 
in New Haven, Conn., in White Lake, Mich., and elsewhere with 
relatives, coming again to Norwalk in 1874. 

She came of old Puritan stock on both her father's and her 


mother's side, her ancestors being among the original Pilgrims 
who landed on Plymouth Rock. Her mother's ancestor, Matthew 
Gilbert, was one of the original settlers of the New Haven colony. 
Her father was a Revolutionary soldier; and her brother, the late 
Judge David Higgins, who was Presiding Judge of this Common 
Pleas Circuit fifty years ago, was a soldier in the war 1812. She 
was the last of her generation, all of a large family of brothers 
and sisters having long ago crossed to the other side, and she, too, 
was willing and anxious to go. 

Miss Higgins was a woman of great intellectual ability, and 
the few now living who remember her as she was in her earlier 
years call to mind a strength of character, a vigorous literary tal- 
ent, and an executive ability of the highest order. She failed 
greatly in her powers in her later years, and becoming very deaf, 
was not as companionable as by nature and inclination she was 
fitted to be. But to her few intimate friends "Aunt Myra " was 
still the same as ever; and loving hearts mourn not that she is 
gone, for it is better so — but because death is always sad, come 
as it may. « 

She was a member of the North Congregational Church, of 
New Haven, Conn., retaining her membership there until the last. 
As her mind wandered in her last illness, her thoughts went back 
to the old scenes of long ago and she called the names of the 
friends of her youth, who have all many years since been gathered 
to their fathers, and she talked about the scenes of her old Con- 
necticut home. And now she has gone to that other home, that 
Heavenly mansion not made with hands eternal in the heavens. 
Weary and worn out with the toilsome journey, with wan frame 
and tottering steps, she approached the Heavenly gates, and the 
Lord himself, who careth for the feeble, received her to himself — 
and the poor, tired traveler was at rest. 

The funeral services were held at Mrs. Farr's residence Tues- 
day afternoon, April 7, 1885, at 2:30 o'clock. 


Died at his residence in Bronson, Ohio, on May 9th, 1885, 
William White, aged 14 years, 2 months and 24 days. He was 
born at St. Clairsville, Belmont county, Ohio, February 15th, 1811. 
Commenced working at cabinet work when at the age of eleven 
years, and remained in that business in New Haven and Sandusky 


until at the age of 29, when he bought a farm in Greenfield, Huron 
county, Ohio, of eighty acres, almost a complete wilderness. He 
was joined in marriage to Miss Lucy Holland, of Sandusky City, 
October 23, 1835. Then commenced their pioneer life. They 
cleared up forty acres and resided in that section until 1858, when 
he bought a farm in Bronson, where he lived until his death. 

There is something sad, yet grand, when we think what our 
fathers and mothers have done. Sad to think of their hard labor, 
privations, and everything that a pioneer's life was subject to- 
Grand, when we ride over the country and see the work of their 
hands — beautiful farms and dwellings, when it was nothing but a 
dense forest, where they commenced life together. Now their 
work is done, their hands folded, quietly they rest; their children 
and their children's children reap the beneht. 

For fifteen years he had been a victim of that incurable dis- 
ease, consumption, and for several years very feeble, but confined 
to his bed only two weeks. His end was peaceful. He left a wife 
and six children, five of whom were present at his death; three 
had preceded him. The funeral was held at the house at 10 a. m., 
on the 12th inst., conducted by Rev. M. J. Keyes, and his body 
laid at rest in the Greenfield cemetery. The text was: "Behold 
what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we 
should be called the sons of God ! Therefore the world knowcth 
us not, because it knew Him not. Beloved, now are we the sons 
of God; and it doth not yet appear what we shall be, but we know 
that when He shall appear we shall be like Him, for we shall sec 
Him as He is." 

" Light lie the turf of thy tomb: 

May its verdure like emerald be; 
There should not come the shadow of gloom 

In aught that reminds us of thee. 
Bright flowers and an evergreen tree 

Shall spring from the place of thy rest; 
But not cypress nor yew let us see, 

For why should we mourn for the blest ? 
A life well spent, and time allotted to man, 

Of more than three score years and ten."' 


From the Norwalk Reflector, May 23, 1885. 

Friday morning, May 22, 1885, the remains of Mr. Cortland 
L. Latimer reached Norwalk from Cleveland, accompanied by the 

following relatives and friends: 


Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Latimer, Gen. H. H. Dodge, Mrs. Heisley, 
Mrs. Louise Morse, Mr. Z. M. Hubbell, Mr. Jacob Perkins, Mr. E. 
S. Chamberlain, Mr. and Mrs. W. T. McEwen, Mr. Amos, The Rev. 
Dr. Eieroy D. Curtis, Mr. T. W. Brown, Mr. George Ford. 

There were also present Mr. John R. Osborn, Mrs. Lizzie 
Crafts, Mrs. Wm. Baker and Mrs. Geo. Baker, of Toledo, and 
Messrs. Alfred and Edward Newton, of Saginaw. 

A large number of Norwalk friends of the deceased had gath- 
ered at the depot to pay the last sad tribute of respect to the mem- 
ory of opp hp.loved as a dear friend, and upon the arrival of the 
train the funeral proceeded to the Presbyterian Church. 

The previously announced arrangements, had been changed, so 
that services were held in the Sunday School room of the church, 
instead of at the cemetery. An audience, composed of many of 
our oldest and most respected citizens, as well as many of Mr. Lat- 
imer's Sunday School scholars, listened to most beautiful and ap- 
propriate remarks by the Rev. J. M. Seymour, and by the Rev. E. 
D. Curtis, the latter the life-long friend of Mr. Latimer, and a 
participator with him in many of those works of religious activity 
which were the delight of Mr. Latimer's life. The eulogies pro- 
nounced over the remains by the reverend gentlemen were eloquent 
tributes to a noble man whose sterling worth was best known to 
those who knew him best.- 

A touching feature of the occasion were the "floral offerings 
from old scholars, those who love and revere the memory of their 
old leader and friend. It was recalled how Mr. Latimer used to 
love flowers, and how graciously he received them when brought 
by the children. 

The burial was at Woodlawn, where rest also his wife and 
children, and it was a company of true mourners that followed 
with sad hearts to the grave. 

Very interesting and impressive memorial exercises for the 
late Cortland L. Latimer were held at the Presbyterian Sunday 
School, Sunday, May 24, 1885. Dr. A. N. Read, Judge C. P. Wick- 
ham, Mrs. E. H. Farr and Mr. C. E. Newman were among the 
speakers, their remarks turning largely to personal reminiscences 
of the deceased. 


By J. A. Fanoher. 
Daniel Fancher, son of Thaddeus and Sarah Fancher, was born 
in Pompia, state of New York, September 14, 1802. He came with 


his father to Ohio, in the fall of 1810; they stopped at Milan, Erie 
county, through the winter, and in the spring of 1820 they picked 
their way through the woods from Milan to the first section of 
Greenwich township and located upon lot 21 of said first section. 
After they had found their claim, his father returned to 
New York for the rest of the family, leaving Daniel here alone to 
prepare a cabin for the family and make such other preparations as 
he could through the summer. As there were a few settlers within 
two or three miLes, he managed to work out part of the time; so, 
by getting some help in return and taking some provisions for the 
balance, he was quite wv-11 prepared for them when they got here; 
as they came with an ox team, it was late in the fall w r hen they 
reached their place. As there was a large family, Daniel went to 
work for other people, working out five years, three years for Mr. 
Daniel Beech, of Ruggles township, Ashland county, during which 
time his labor consisted in chopping, logging and building fence. 
I have heard him say that for the first three years' work he only 
received 18 pence in money; the balance was trade. 

In 1825 he was married to Polly Mitchell and settled on lot 4 
of the first section of Greenwich, where they commenced in the 
woods to make a home, and were getting along nicely, until 1840, 
when his wife died, leaving him with five children, the youngest 
but 8 months old. For his second wife he Married Hannah Mitch- 
ell, (no connection of his first wife) with whom he lived over 44 
years, she going to the spirit world but a few hours before him. 

In 1841 he embraced religion and united with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, of which he was a faithful member until death, 
giving of his time and means to build churches and support the 
gospel. Ever ready to tell what the Lord had done for him, he 
lived to see hundreds of his neighbors and their children, and all 
of his own children rejoicing in his Savior. Many preachers will 
remember that at his home they always found a welcome. 

For several years he was quite feeble in body, but his mind 
was as clear as ever; he spent much time in reading his bible. lie 
departed this life in great peace April 1 1th, 1885, aged 82 years, 6 
months and 27 days. 

Although we can see his face no more, yet his kind acts and 
sweet christian spirit will tell on other lives for ;i long time to 



Officers of the Society 2 

Preface 3 

Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting 1884 4 

Directors' Meeting, August 8, 1884 8 

Directors' Meeting, September 20, HS4 9 

Quarterly Meeting at Peru, Oct. 8, 1884 9 

Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting, 1885 12 

Directors' Meeting, August 15,1885 18 

Directors* Meeting, August 19, 1885 18 

Quarterly Meeting at Fairfield, Oct. 7, '85 19 

Life and Annual Members., 23 

The Life of our Pioneers, by General F. 

Sawyer 24 

Pioneer Life as It Was and as It Is, by 

C. H. Stewart, Esq 27 

Our Work in History, by Rev. J. N. Lewis 32 
The Pioneer Physician, by Dr. John C. 

Sanders 40 

The Old Chimney Corner, by I. M. Gillett 51 

Address of Welcome, by Rev. R. J. Smith 52 
Compensations of Pioneer Life, by Rev. 

J.M.Seymour 54 


The Fourth of July in Early Time? 61 

The Start in New London 62 

The Port of Huron, 1832 62 

Huron and Lorain Importing and Export- 
ing Company 63 

Advertisers of the Reporter 64 

Legendary account of first Camp Meeting 67 

A Fitchville Centenarian , 71 

Almost a Centenarian 77 

The Army Record of Peru 80 


Ezra and Amy G. Smith 82 

Mrs. Lucretia Waggoner 86 

Miner Cole and Isaac JJnderhill 89 

Mrs. John R. Osborn 92 

Hosea Townsend , 94 

Myron N. Morris 95 

Ira Wood......... 96 

Harriet A. Messenger 96 

Hannah Russell 96 

Charity White 96 

Mrs. Dr. A. D. Skellenger 96 

Norman Hakes 97 

George Quincy Adams 99 

Mr--. Nancy Watros 101 

David T. Maynard..... 103 

Mrss. Angeline Maynard 104 

Mrs. Annis Mead 105 

James Green 106 

Mrs. Almeda Sammis 107 

FannyCaroIine Mallory 108 

John Elias Minges 109 

Hiram Stewart Ill 

Cyrenius Beecher 112 

LymanScott 113 

Lester Smith 115 

Amos Clark 116 

Hannah Conger 117 

Joseph S.Smith 118 

Mrs. Ann Green Bott 119 

Betsey Worthington 120 

Forest Messinger 120 

Sally Drake Powers 120 

Jonathan Prentiss 121 

G.F.Miner 121 

Mrs. Patty Brooks 121 

Emily O. Waldron 121 

Mrs. Deborah Husted 122 

Mrs. Baxter Ashley 123 

Miss Myra Higgins 123 

William White 124 

Cortland L. Latimer 125 

Daniel Fancher 126 


Sl^e + J irelarp^s + Pioneer, 1 

Copies of this book. New Series, II alum e III, also of farmer numbers : 

now in passEssian af ths Sacisty, may bs had of the Librarian and Custodian, t 

Mr, C, E, NEWMAN, office No, 7 Case's Block, or of F, R.LOOMIS, the \ 

Biographer of the' Society, at the Chronicls Off.cE, - f 

Copiss will bs mailsd to any address on receipt of the price, 50 Cents, t 

J Address all communications to the abovs parsons, at Norwalk, Ohio, {